Advanced Practice Nursing in the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland)

Screen Shot 2022-06-19 at 2.15.12 PM

Nursing & Midwifery Council
Royal College of Nursing

Country Specific Resource Links:
Advanced Practice Toolkit – repository for UK specific resources for practice


The role of Advanced Practice Nurses in the United Kingdom (UK) is primarily represented as Advanced Nurse Practitioners (ANPs; RCN, 2012).  While the title of ANP is used by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN), there had been inconsistencies among the general public as to the term to call ANPs in the country, and various are used as: advanced clinical practice (ACP) nurse, nurse practitioner, registered nurse practitioner, clinical nurse practitioner, senior nurse practitioner, advanced nurse practitioner, and association nurse practitioner (Morgan, 2010; RCGP, 2020).

The ANP role was first introduced in the UK with the initiation of a Nurse Practitioner program focusing on primary health care at the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) in 1991-1992 (NP/APN Network, 2020; Sheer & Wong, 2008).  Much of the push for development of this role was to ease the overbearing workload of the general practitioners (primary care physicians) in the country, and this largely continues to drive the need for this role (NP/APN Network, 2020; Pulcini, Jelic, Gul, & Loke, 2009).  Delamaire and Lafortune (2010), further identified that improving the quality of care additionally drives role development in the UK.

While the role has been continually developed and internationally is considered at a more advanced stage of APN advancement, the role is not formally regulated which greatly prevents further advancement and maintains inconsistencies in both educational and professional standards (Evans et al., 2020; NP/APN Network, 2020).

Currently ANPs in the UK have both prescriptive authority and work autonomously, two role qualities that have demonstrate significant advancement of the advanced practice nurse role (RCN, 2013; RCN, 2022).  Because of the origination in primary care, the ANP role in the UK is to perform the same care as a general practitioner (Morgan, 2010).  Additionally, the role has progressively been integrated and widely embraced in the UK health system (Evans et al., 2020).

Outside of the ANP role in the UK, there are various specializations offered for general nurses allowing them to become a level 2 nurse, which is a role that is registered by the Nursing and Midwifery Council in the UK (NMC, 2013).  While these roles do require additional education, they are not the same as the ANP role described above.

There is a role of the midwife in the UK regulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Board.  This role is unique in that all midwives have a supervisor midwife to provide a check in quality of care, reflecting a role and regulatory structure existing since 1902 (NMC, 2010).

Education and Certification

Education for the Advanced Nurse Practitioner in the UK has been occurring at the masters level for more than 20 years and the majority of ANPs in the UK possess a graduate degree (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010; RCN, 2022; Savrin, 2009).   While the recommended standard for advanced nurse practitioners in the UK is set by the recommendations by the Royal College of Nursing, it is not required that all educational programs in the country follow these recommendations, and consequentially the role varies according to health institution’s policies (Evans et al., 2020; King, Tod, & Sanders, 2017; Morgan, 2010).

Registration as an Advanced Nurse Practitioner in the UK is required as a nurse, and there is not a separate registry outside of that of the general nursing registry (RCN, 2022b).  Licensure of nursing is accepted from other nations as an Advanced Nurse Practitioner, provided an individual can follow the required process to do so (RCN, 2022b).

To help with APN role standardization, as of 2017 the RCN proposed a national certification to provide regulation for the standard scope of practice.  While the momentum to provide such standardization has been growing over the years, inconsistency in advanced nursing education continues to beleaguer role continuity (Evans et al., 2020; King, Tod, & Sanders, 2017; NP/APN Network, 2020).


The role of the ANP in the UK was greatly focused on primary health care (Pulcini et al., 2009).

For registered nurse specialists, there are currently various specialties that level 1 nurses can specialize in (RCN, 2013):

  • Registered specialist community public health nurse (SCPHN) qualification in
    • Family
    • Health visitor
    • Occupational health
    • Non-specific
    • School nurse
  • Specialist Practice Qualification
    • Adult nursing
    • Children’s nursing
    • Community children’s nursing
    • Mental health nursing
    • District nursing
    • General practice nursing
    • Learning disability nurse
    • Mental health

While these are the registration qualifications recognized by the NMC in the UK, nurses can have a specialization in a specific subject of nursing (i.e. epilepsy, Parkinson’s, cancer).

Have information to add to this page?

Delamaire, M. & Lafortune, G. (2010). Nurses in advanced roles: A description and evaluation of experiences in 12 developed countries.  OECD Health Working Papers, 54, OECD Publishing.

Evans, C., Pearce, R., Greaves, S., & Blake, H. (2020). Advanced clinical practitioners in primary care in the UK: A qualitative study of workforce transformation.  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17(4500), doi:103390/ijerph17124500

King, R., Tod, A., & Sanders, T. (2017). Development and regulation of advanced nurse practitioners in the UK and internationally. Nursing Standard, 32(14). pp.43-50.  doi: 10.7748/ns.2017.e10858

Morgan, S. (2010, July 9).  What are the differences in nurse practitioner training and scope of practice in the US and UK?  Retrieved from:

NP / APN Network (2020). Guidelines on advanced practice nursing 2020 [online publication].   International Council of Nurses. Geneva, Switzerland.

Nursing and Midwifery Council [NMC] (n.d.).  Registering as a nurse or midwife in the United Kingdom: For applicants outside the European Economic Area [online document].  Retrieved from:

Pulcini, J., Jelic, M., Gul, R, Loke, A.Y. (2009).  An international survey on advanced practice nursing, education, practice, and regulation.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 42(1),31-39.  doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01322.x

Robinson, S. & Griffiths, P. (2007).  Nursing education and regulation: International profiles and perspectives [online publication].  Retrieved from:

Royal College of General Practitioners [RCGP] (2020). Core capabilities framework for advanced clinical practice (nurses) working in general practice / primary care in England [online book]. Health Education England, NHS. England.

Royal College of Nursing [RCN] (2012).  Advanced nurse practitioners: An RCN guide to advanced nursing practice, advanced nurse practitioners and programme accreditation [electronic document].  Retrieved from:

Royal College of Nursing [RCN] (2013).  RCN Factsheet: Specialist nursing in the UK.  Retrieved from:

Royal College of Nursing [RCN] (2022a). Advanced practice standards. Retrieved June 19, 2022 from:

Royal College of Nursing [RCN] (2022b). Register as a nurse or midwife if you trained outside the UK. Retrieved June 19, 2022 from:

Savrin, C. (2009). Growth and development of the nurse practitioner role around the globe.  Journal of Pediatric Health Care 23, (5),310-314.

Sheer, B. (2007).  Nurse practitioners on the move: The journey to the United States.  Topics In Advanced Nursing eJournal. 7(2).  Retrieved from:

Sheer, B. & Wong, F.K. (2008).  The development of advanced nursing practice globally.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(3),204-211.

[Originally Published October 7, 2013. Updated June 19, 2022]

Advanced Practice Nursing in Latvia

Latvian Nurses Association


The role of Advanced Practice Nursing in Latvia is not currently observed to be in development. Most recently Latvia has prioritized standardization of their registered nursing curriculum, identifying that by the end of 2022 to have registered nurses trained at the bachelor’s level (WHO, 2020). Traditionally the health system has allowed for various nursing specialties, but did not have a general nurse role. The initiative ratified by the Latvian Parliament has undergone the establishment of a generalize nursing qualification, and then allow nurses to specialize further afterward (WHO, 2020).

Since the nation has yet to formally establish their nursing fundamental curriculum and qualifications, the advancement of the nursing role toward a master’s degree level and provision of an expounded scope of practice is not yet underway.

Meanwhile, there is a significant gap of healthcare workers throughout the nation, particularly for individuals to work in the traditional physician scope of practice as well in rural settings. Additionally, evaluation of burnout of the nursing force within Latvia has identified that nurses feel a significant gap in feeling empowered and accomplishment (Circenis et al., 2017). In theory, if nurses were given additional opportunities for professional growth and increased autonomy, they may have reduced burn out (Twigg, D. & McCullough, 2014). As a result Latvia does have several significant potential factors to promote the advancement of the nursing role.

Have information to add to this page?

Circenis, K., Deklava, L., Millere, I. et al. (2017). Fatigue and burnout among Latvian nurses. Global Journal of Psychology Research New Trends and Issues. 7(3), 111-116. doi:10.18844/gjpr.v7i3.2856

Twigg, D. & McCullough, K. (2014). Nurse retention: A review of strategies to create and enhance positive practice environments in clinical settings. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 51(1). 85-92. doi:101016/j.ijnurstu.2013.05.015

Veide, S., Lember, M. & Põlluste, K. (2015). Latvia.  In Kringos, D.S., Boerma, W.G.W., Hutchinson, A. et al. (Eds.) Building primary care in a changing Europe: Case Studies [Internet].  European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Copenhagen, Denmark.

World Health Organization [WHO] (2020). Postgraduate training in Latvia. Retrieved from:

Advanced Practice Nursing in Norway

Norwegian Nurses Organisation (NNO)
Western Norway University of Applied Sciences


The role of Advanced Practice Nursing in Norway has most recently explored and is currently in active development.  According to Holm Hansen et al. (2020) the role was most recently introduced through an extended pilot including both the nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles (Holm Hansen et al., 2020).  Through this extensive introduction, key barriers to developing the role have been identified.  One of the biggest gaps at this time is the lack of formal role protection in the country (Østvik, 2017).

Education, Certification, and Specialties

Both the bachelor and master’s level educational programs for registered nurses are regulated, creating a solid foundation for the advancement of nursing practice (Holm Hansen et al., 2020).  Since the master’s level degree has been available for nurses since 2015 which allows advanced practice nursing to be able to more easily embrace the APN role (Østvik, 2017). With the piloted roles described by Holm Hansen et al. (2020), advanced practice nursing in Norway has core curriculum and training at the master’s level, with 120 credits for program completion (WNU, 2022).  However because of the lack of formal recognition of the APN role, the APN educational curriculum is not yet nationally regulated (Østvik, 2017)

Have information to add to this page?

Holm Hansen, E., Boman, E., Bing-Jonsson, P., & Fagerstrom, L.M. (2020). Introducing nurse practitioners into Norwegian primary healthcare- Experiences and learning.  Research and Theory for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 34(1) doi:10.1891/1541.6577.34.1.21

Østvik, E. (2017). Country Practice Profiles: Norway [Webpage]. NP / APN Network. Retrieved June 5, 2022 from:

Western Norway University of Applied Sciences [WNU] (2022). Advanced Practice Nursing. Website.  Retrieved June 4, 2022 from:

Advanced Practice Nursing in Sweden

Screen Shot 2022-06-05 at 2.59.58 PM



The role of Advanced Practice Nursing in Sweden has been explored for more than a decade, but the role is still in its infancy. The role has been in development, but not formally established (Bergström, & Lindh, 2018).

Historically in 2005, the Advanced Clinical Nurse Specialist role has been piloted through programs first offered (Lindblad, et al., 2010; Egerod et al., 2021).    This role primarily 

The role of APNs in Sweden has been under evaluation and experimentation in general practice (primary health care) and has been based on an institutional-specific model allowing varying levels of scope of practice (Lindblad et al, 2010).  Because of the lack of APN role identification, the role is currently under development to be of the greatest benefit to the Swedish health care system (Lindblad et al., 2010).  Further, there is reported ongoing interest in the Swedish health care system for more Nurse Specialists (Vårdförbundet, 2013; Vårdförbundet 2019).  

The nurse to physician ratio in Sweden reportedly was 2.7 to one which reportedly is just under the average among European countries, but unfortunately has the lowest number per 1,000 population at 11.1 (Alenius, Lindqvist, and Tishelman, 2019).  Additionally, there has been a large gap in licensed physicians, largely reflected in the majority (59%) of current physicians being educated in another country (Alenius, Lindqvist, and Tishelman, 2019).  While there is a gap in physician shortage, which facilitates the advancement of nursing practice, assumedly the lack of registered nurses in the country also impedes the progress due to the lack of nursing supply to advance.

In Sweden to help the ongoing needs of the overall population, nurses have been given the prescribing authority since 1994, allowing registered nurses limited prescriptive authority for initial treatment of various acute concerns as urinary tract infections, throat infections (HAI Europe, 2012; Maier, 2019).


Education, Certification, and Specialties

Nurse Specialists are trained at the masters level (Vårdförbundet, 2013; Vårdförbundet 2019).  The current programs in Sweden have been educating individuals for the Advanced Clinical Nurse Specialist role since 2005 (Lindblad et al., 2010).  The program primarily focuses on 60 to 75 additional university level education credits (Vårdförbundet 2019).

Various specializations at this time are offered and identified by Vårdförbundet (2019) as:

  • Ambulance Care
  • Anesthesia
  • District Nurse
  • Intensive Care
  • General Medicine
  • Surgery
  • Oncology
  • Surgery
  • Psychiatry
  • Geriatric Care
  • Pediatrics

While there are various programs of specialization that are offered, the major limitation to the role is the lack of legal formal establishment of the role.  As a result the utilization of each role is often limited to the organization’s preference and policies.

Have information to add to this page?

Alenius, L.S., Lindqvist, R., & Tishelman, C. (2019). Sweden.  In Rafferty, A.M., Busse, R., Zander-Jentsch, B. et al. (Eds.) Strengthening health systems through nursing: Evidence from 14 European countries [Internet].  European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Bergström, P. & Lindh, V. (2018). Developing the role of Swedish advanced practice nurse (APN) through a blended learning master’s program: Consequences of knowledge organisation, Nurse Education in Practice, 28(1471-5953), pp.196-201, doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2017.10.030

Egerod, I., Kaldan, G., Nordentoft, S., Larsen, A., Herling, S. F., Thomsen, T., & Endacott, R. (2021). Skills, competencies, and policies for Advanced Practice Critical Care Nursing in Europe: A scoping review. Nurse Education in Practice, 54, 103142.

HAI Europe (2012). The next chapter in promotion of healthcare professionals: Nurse prescribers [fact sheet]. Retrieved from:

Lindblad, E., Hallman, E.B., Gillsjo, C., Lindblad, U., & Fagerstom, L. (2010).  Experiences of the new role of advanced practice nurses in Swedish primary health care–A qualitative study.  International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16, 69-74.  doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01810.x

Vårdförbundet (2013).  Specialist Nurse [translated by Google Translate].  Retrieved from:

Vårdförbundet (2019). Specialist Nurse [translated by Google Translate]. Retrieved from:

[Originally published 9 September 2013, revised 2 June, 2022]

Advanced Practice Nursing in Pakistan

Screen Shot 2022-05-21 at 1.20.03 PM

Aga Khan University, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan
Pakistan Nursing Council


The role of the Advanced Practice Nurse in Pakistan is in development. The role has not been formally developed, however based on the interest to increase health care access to individuals in rural areas.  In November 2020, the Aga Khan University in Pakistan hosted a conference to promote the role of the Advanced Practice Nurse in Pakistan, and during that conference Rasul (2020, November) reported expanded roles for registered nurses to include specializations of neonatology, critical care, and pediatrics with mental health and pediatrics in the future.  Further, Rasul (2020, November) reported the offering of the expanded specializations would be “to prepare graduates to work as APNs once an official scope of practice has been created.”

Most recently, the Aga Khan University (2022, May 19) has announced their first pilot APN program endorsed by the Pakistan Nursing Council that officially will introduce the APN role to the country.  While the legal infrastructure isn’t in place as of yet, this is another major step toward developing the role.

Have information to add to this page?


Aga Khan University (2022, May 19). AKU to launch first advanced practice nursing training in Pakistan.  Retrieved May 22, 2022 from:

Rasul, F. (2020, November). President’s Address. Shaping the future: Introducing advanced practice nursing in Pakistan and East Africa.  Aga Khan University, Pakistan.  Retrieved May 22, 2022 from:

Advanced Practice Nursing in Finland

Screen Shot 2022-05-17 at 11.48.43 AM
*Finland will allow transferral of RN licensure from various parts of the EU (FNA)
Not able to find information regarding transferral of advanced practice degrees

Finnish Nurses Association
Terveydenhuollon Oikeusturvakeskus (National Authority for Medico-Legal Affairs)


The role of the Advanced Practice Nurse has developed over the years in Finland.  The initial discussions of advancing nursing practice in Finland started in the 1980’s (FNA, 2018).  Over time the advanced practice nursing role grew to two chief roles, that of the Advanced Nurse and Public Health Nurse, both of which were prepared with graduated level schooling (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010).

Starting in 2001, the first Clinical Nurse Specialists (CNS) started practicing at the Helsinki University Hospital (FNA, 2018, p.29).  Since then the CNS role has grown significantly.  Meanwhile need to improve access for health care services for an aging population has promoted the advancement of the Nurse Practitioner role (NP / APN Network, 2017).

Meanwhile, Delamaire and Lafortune (2010), reported that Finland was of the top nations with the highest number of nurses per 1000 people in the country at 15.5; thus indicating a surplus of nurses.  Meanwhile, they indicated that Finland held a mildly below average ratio of doctors per capita (2.7 to 1000 people; European average was 2.8) (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010).  As a result, Finland presents itself as good place to further develop the Advanced Practice Nursing role, with a higher ratio of nurses and a lower number of doctors per capita, similar to that of the United States and United Kingdom (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010).

Specialties and Education

APNs have been working in various roles including rural healthcare, general practice, and acute care (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010, FNA, 2018).  As described above, the roles of CNS and Nurse Practitioner are prevalent, but in addition to these registered nurses in Finland have the choice of specializing in various categories nearing graduation of nursing school in acute care, geriatric care, mental health, multi-cultural, pediatrics, palliative care and youth and adolescent care (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007, NP / APN Network, 2017).  Additionally, an individual can choose to be a nurse midwife with an additional year of schooling (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007).

Education for Advanced Practice Nurses in Finland produced it’s first graduates in 2006 (DeGeest et al., 2008; Fagerström & Glasberg, 2011).  Education for the registered nurse is comparable to various other EU nations, usually requires a bachelor degree typically taking 3.5 years, and 4 years for the public health nurse (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007; FNA, 2018).  The advanced degrees are available afterward to those who desire further advancement in scope of practice at the graduate level (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010).  Registration for healthcare individuals within Finland is maintained by the National Authority for Medico-Legal Affairs (Terveydenhuollon Oikeusturvakeskus).

According to the Finnish Nurses Association (2018) the most developed roles of AP Ns in Finland are the Clinical Nurse Specialist and Nurse Practitioner.  Both roles are described as, “At the advanced level, independent clinical nursing and health promotion as well as the related ethical decision-making, teaching and instruction, consultation, evidence-based practices, management, cooperation, research, and development” (p.32).  In addition to this the roles are more clearly differentiated below:

  • Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS)
    • The role has been in existence since 2001 in Finland (FNA, 2018, p.29).
    • CNSs are employed in various parts of the hospital systems in Finland, more predominantly at the university hospitals (FNA, 2018, p.29).
    • The role has four spheres: patient care, nursing organization, and scholarship.  Any of the CNS roles require a master’s level degree (NP / APN Network, 2017).
    • “Broad-based work aimed to ensure and develop the quality of nursing, foster the implementation of evidence-based nursing and support the organization’s strategic work.” (FNA, 2018, p.32)
  • Nurse Practitioner
    • The FNA (2018) identifies the Nurse Practitioner role as one that more specifically is, “Broad-based and comprehensive nursing, independent examination of patients and assessments of their need for care as well as starting treatment based on symptoms and monitoring both acute and chronic health conditions.” (p.32)
    • The role requires a master’s degree and primarily performed by APNs working in primary care.  Individuals can additionally pursue an academic post graduate degree (doctorate) (FNA, 2018, p.32).
    • The role is not nationally regulated, and as a result it varies according to organizational oversight.

Other roles identified NP / APN Network (2017) are:

  • Specialized Nurses in Clinical Practice
    • Roles largely reflect specialization in a specific area of concentration.  This requires 30-60 ETCS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) and provides advanced professional roles in the selected specialization (NP / APN Network, 2017).
    • The expanded roles are not regulated, and rather institution specific (NP / APN Network, 2017).
  • Nurse Prescriber
    • A role designated for limited prescribing of medications.  This is performed with physician oversight and requires 45 ECTS post graduate training in order to be able to have this permission (FNA, 2018, p.33).
    • According to the NP / APN Network (2017), most APNs in Finland do not have prescribing authority.

Have information to add to this page?

References and Influential Articles:
De Geest, S., Moons, P., Callens, B., Gut., C., Lindpainter, L., & Sprig, R. (2008).  Introducting advanced practice nurses/nurse practitioners in health care systems: A framework for reflection and analysis.  Swiss Med Weekly, 138(43-44),621-628.

Delamaire, M. & Lafortune, G. (2010). Nurses in advanced roles: A description and evaluation of experiences in 12 developed countries.  OECD Health Working Papers, 54, OECD Publishing.

Fagerström, L. & Glasberg, A.L. (2011).  The first evaluation of the advanced practice nurse role in Finland – The perspective of nurse leaders.  Journal of Nursing Management, 19, 925-932.  doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01280.x

Finnish Nurses Association [FNA] (2018). New roles for nurses – Quality to future social welfare and health care services.  Retrieved May 17, 2022 from:

HAI Europe (2012). The next chapter in promotion of healthcare professionals: Nurse prescribers [fact sheet]. Retrieved from:

Jokiniemi K. (2014). Clinical Nurse Specialist Role in Finnish Health Care. Dissertations in Health Science. U niversity of Eastern Finland. Available in:‐952‐61‐1579‐ 5/urn_isbn_978‐952‐61‐1579‐5.pdf

NP / APN Network (2017). Country specific practice profiles. Retrieved May 16, 2022 from:

Robinson, S. & Griffiths, P. (2007).  Nursing education and regulation: International profiles and perspectives [online publication].  Retrieved from:

Tynkkynen, L.K. (n.d.). Limited right for nurses to prescribe medication.  Health Policy Monitor.  Retrieved from:


Advanced Nursing Practice in Jamaica


Jamaican Association of Nurse Anesthetists (JANA)
Jamaica Association of Nurse Practitioners (Facebook Page)
Jamaica Ministry of Health
Nursing Council of Jamaica
University of West Indies, School of Nursing


The role of the Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) was introduced in Jamaica in the 1970s largely driven by the lack of physicians in the country (NP / APN Network, 2022, p. 5, Zug et al, 2016). There are two main roles, identified as a Family Nurse Practitioner and Nurse Anesthetist.

Nurse Practitioner (NP)

The Nurse Practitioner role revolves around providing primary care services to patients, particularly in underserved and rural areas (Henry, 2019; Zug et al, 2016). More specifically, a Nurse Practitioner in Jamaica performs the following duties (Henry, 2019):

  • Assess patient needs
  • Interpret diagnostic and laboratory tests
  • Diagnose illness and disease
  • Prescribe medication
  • Formulate treatment plans

At this time the role is still regarded as in development to “update and increase the scope of APN practice ” as Nurse Practitioners are not able to independently prescribe medication without oversight by a physician (Henry, 2019; NP / APN Network, 2022, pg. 5; Zug et al, 2016).

Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA)

Also identified largely as the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA), the role was largely developed in the 1980s to mitigate the anesthesia needs and costs throughout the country as only 40 anesthesiologists were in the country in 2015 and the country at the same time supported the anesthesia needs by having 50 CNRAs (IFNA, 2015).

Education and Certification

As of 2002, education required for practice as a Nurse Practitioner was increased to a master’s level program through the West Indies School of Nursing (Zug et al, 2016). Once completing the educational requirement, the APN obtains certification to practice in the country which is regulated by the Nursing Council of Jamaica (NP / APN Network, 2017). The program at the University of the West Indies (UWI) requires at least 5 years of nursing experience while not attending an educational institution and licensure from any of the 16 countries that the UWI serves (including Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Granada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago and Turks and Caicos (UWI, 2022).

For the role of the Nurse Anesthetist, a master’s level degree has been required since 2007, and educational requirements include a 32 month program that does involve a 6 month internship through the UWI (IFNA, 2015). Biennial re-licensure is required by the Nursing Council of Jamaica (IFNA, 2015).


The two main roles of the APN in Jamaica are:

  • Nurse Practitioner
  • Nurse Anesthetist

Have information to update this page?


Henry, O. (2019). Legislative framework for NPs to practice far advanced. Jamaica Information Service. Retrieved May 16, 2022 from:

International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists [INFA] (2015). Jamaica. Retrieved May 16, 2022 from:

NP / APN Network (2017). Country specific practice profiles. Retrieved May 16, 2022 from:

NP / APN Network (2022). INP/APN Network Bulletin. 33rd Issue. Geneva. Retrieved from:

University of West Indies [UWI] (2022). The UWI School of Nursing. Retrieved May 16, 2022 from:

Zug, et al. (2016). Advanced practice nursing in Latin America and the Caribbean: Regulation, education and practice. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 24(e2807):1-9. doi:10.1590/1518-8345.1615.2807

Advanced Practice Nursing in Slovakia

Screen Shot 2022-06-08 at 8.47.55 PM

Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic


The role of the Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) was formally recognized in 2018 by the Ministry of Health in Slovakia (Grešš Halász, 2021).  The role has been relatively recently introduced and evidence by Grešš Halász et al. (2021) demonstrated that APN’s have mixed perceptions about their own competence in practicing at a more advanced level, and practice confidence varied based on region within the country.

Healthcare in Slovakia historically was centralized by the government up until 1990.  Afterward, the nation shifted to privatizing healthcare throughout the country, meanwhile mandating healthcare to remain not-for-profit.  As much of advanced nursing practice is dependent on the abundance of trained nursing staff and the shortfall of more advanced medical professionals, the lower ratio of nurses per 1,000 people at 5.7 within the EU (compared to 8.4 of EU in general) likely contributes to the slower development of the APN role.  Much of this gap is attributed to lower wages and lack of financial investment on behalf of the nation in healthcare staff, including education and health infrastructure (Slovak Spectator, 2021 Sep 14).

Education and Certification

Education for the APN in Slovakia is legislatively defined as “a nurse who graduated from at least the second university degree (equivalent to master’s degree) proceeded by the first university degree (equivalent to bachelor degree) in nursing, with specialization, and at least 5 years’ experience in a particular specialization, or a nurse without a specialization with 8 years of professional experience.” (Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic, 2018).


According to the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic (2018) there are several specializations recognized and identified within legislation. The additional roles expand on the level of independence the nurse may function.  The basic nursing role is as follows.

  • Nursing Practice (§ 95.1)
    • Provide nursing diagnoses and follows treatment plans accordingly
    • Perform assessment of the patient
    • Provide ongoing nursing care/monitoring of patient
    • Provide wound/ostomy care
    • Provide patient education

Below are a list of the specializations with their added independent competencies:

  • Nurse Specialist (§95.2)
    • Can choose if a patient will have an intravenous cannula placed or not and can place that apparatus
    • Follow dose range pharmaceutical operations.
  • Nurse with Advanced Experience (§95.3)
    • All care that of the Nurse Specialist (above)
    • Provide advanced assessment
    • Indicate and collect biological specimens (i.e. ordering lab analysis)
    • Indicates treatment for nursing care
    • Indicates treatment for preliminary wound care
  • Nurse Midwife (§95.5)
    • Provide traditional antenatal and postnatal care for mother and infant (up to 6 weeks post-natal)
    • Performs childbirth, including if episiotomy if required
  • Nurse Midwife Specialist (§95.6)
    • All care that of a Nurse Midwife
    • Can indicate and place intravenous cannula
  • Nurse Midwife with Advanced Experience (§95.7)
    • All care that of the Nurse Midwife and Nurse Midwife Specialist
    • Advanced independence of indication of treatment
    • Additional duties to manage nurse midwife care team

Have information to update this page?


Grešš Halász, B. et al. (2021). Developing the advanced practice nursing role in Slovakia: Perception, education, and practice.  Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners. 33(11),916-923. doi: 10.1097/JXX.0000000000000460

Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic. (2018) Decree determining the extent of nursing practice provided by a nurse independently, based on a medical doctor’s indication and in cooperation with a medical doctor and the extent of midwifery provided by a midwife alone, based on a medical doctor’s indication and in cooperation with a medical doctor. (no. 95/2018). The Ministry of Health Slovak Republic.

Slovak Spectator (2021, Sep 14). Hundreds of nurses have left their jobs in Slovak health care. Retrieved May 7, 2022 from:

Advanced Practice Nursing in Puerto Rico


APN Role Exists in Country Today:

Nurse Specialist

Nationally Certified:

Recognize Foreign License:

Treatment Authority:
No (but pending legislation to change)

Prescribing Authority:
No (but pending legislation to change)

Practice Autonomously:
No (but pending legislation to change)

Contact or more information:
Puerto Rico Health Department
Puerto Rico Nursing Practice Law (Ley 9, de 11 do octubre 1987)


Puerto Rico’s integrated relationship with the United States brings many of the advanced practice nursing roles to the island.  Since Puerto Rico is a territory of the united states but is primarily governed under it’s own laws, advanced practice nursing greatly mirrors that of the United States but is still in the process of approving legislature to recognize an autonomous role for advanced nurses similar to nurse practitioners.

Education and Certification

Varying degrees exist for nursing in Puerto Rico based on the varying levels of practice.  Individuals who practice at the nursing generalist level require a bachelor’s degree, for advanced practice one needs a masters degree.  Current legislation proposals have suggested that individuals can additionally gain a doctorate of nursing practice (DNP) for further advancement and specialization (Parés Arroyo, 2015, April 4).

Currently, there are several universities in Puerto Rico that offer such advanced degrees for nurses inclduing the Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recintos de Ciencias Médicas, Arecibo, Humacao y Mayagüez; Universidad del Turabo; Universidad Interamericana en Arecibo e Inter Metro; y la UMET (Parés Arroyo, 2015, April 4).


The nursing role in Puerto Rico mirrors that similarly to the United states with varying educational degrees and roles of nurses (Parés Arroyo, 2015, April 4):

  • Nurse Specialist – Educated with a masters degree, this specialty allows the nurse to manage more complicated health situations in a particular area of specialization.
  • Nurse Generalist – Has a bachelors degree of Science in Nursing and works with the nurse specialist to direct care of patients.
  • Associate Nurse – Has an associates degree in nursing and collaborates with planning and carrying out of direct nursing care to hospitalized patients.

Various additional roles have been suggested to clarify the advanced nursing practice role through legislation including (Parés Arroyo, 2015, April 4):

  • Doctor of Nursing Practice – Provides autonomous practice with the ability to provide services and be reimbursed through contracting with other agencies for their area of specialty.
  • Advanced Practice Nurse – Includes various specialist including: Clinical nurse specialists, nurse midwifery, anesthesia, nurse practitioners and other areas.

Have information to update this page?

Parés Arroyo, M. (2015, April 4). Se especializan cada vez más las enfermeras: Un proyecto de ley propone atemperar los adelantos de esta profesión.  El Nuevo Dia.  Retrieved from:

Advanced Practice Nursing in Belize


APN Role Exists in Country Today:

Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner

Nationally Certified:

Recognize Foreign Licensure:

Treatment Authority:

Prescribing Authority:
Yes (Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner only)

Practice Autonomously:

Belize Ministry of Health


The state of health in Belize has a lack of health professionals in general (BMOH, 2014).  With the lack of a current medical school in the country, providers are frequently trained by neighboring countries as Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica (PAHO, 2009b). As can be imagined, Belize in turn relies heavily on regional international support for their health resource management and it is estimated that up to 30% of their medical providers are immigrated from those other countries.

Because of the lack of health professionals in general, frequently registered nurses autonomously provide care at an advanced practice level including basic diagnosis and treatment at rural health posts (PAHO, 2009b; BMOH, 2014).  Most often, the advanced role in such nursing situations are based on algorithms and protocols for decision making. Frequently they are used as triage agents to determine if an patient may be treated at the rural health post or needs to make the cumbersome trip to a higher level of care and see a medical provider.

Nursing in Belize is regulated by the Ministry of Health through the Nursing and Midwifery Act (Chapter 321, 2003), which currently is under revision by Belize legislature. Nursing according to the 2003 revision is identified according to the curriculum requirements for registration as a registered nurse, but no specific scope of practice is identified. Volunteer opportunities are available for Nurse Practitioners to work according to their scope of practice in their own country.  If an individual desires to work at this level, the would be encouraged to work as a part of a local Non-Governmental Organization and may need to inquire with the Ministry of Health if there are any limitations on their scope of practice.

In general prescribing is permitted for medical doctors and dentists exclusively (Misuse of Drugs Act, Ch. 103, Rev. 2003).  However, as long as there is an overseeing physician, nurses can write and dispense medications according to their understood protocol.

Education and Certification

Certifications for all three nursing specialties are available through the University of Belize.


Based on the greatest needs of the Belize population, the University of Belize (2016) currently offers three certificates for an advanced role:

  • Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner
  • Rural Health Nursing
  • Practical Nursing

The main differentiation is that Psychiatric Nurse Practitioners are permitted to prescribe psychochotropic medications within certain protocols (PAHO, 2009b).

Have information to update this page?

Belize Ministry of Health [BMOH] (2014). Belize Health Sector Strategic Plan 2014-2024.  Retrieved from:

Pan American Health Organization [PAHO] (2009a). WHO-AIMS report on mental health system in Belize. Retrieved from:

Pan American Health Organization (2009b).  Health Systems Profile: Belize.  Retrieved from:

University of Belize (2016).  Program offerings.  Retrieved July 14, 2016 from: July 14, 2016