Advanced Practice Nursing in Austria

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Role

Austria as well as many other nations worldwide is planning for the future sustainability of its health system with an aging health workforce (Glarcher & Lex, 2020).  There has been significant recent momentum in Austria to develop the role of advanced practice nursing (APN) since 2016 when educational regulation for the registered nurse role was formally embraced.  Since 2016 various academic programs recently have developed APN curriculum for masters-level degrees and graduates have begun to enter the workforce (Glarcher & Lex, 2020).

However, at this time the role is largely limited to the lack of any formal regulation.  As a result the scope of practice exists only as determined by each organization and consequentially does not have advanced permissions for advanced practice by national entities for independent assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prescription beyond the registered nurse role (Glarcher & Lex, 2020).

References:
Glarcher, M. & Lex, K.M. (2020).  Advanced nursing practice in Austria under consideration of outcome measurement. Zeitschrift für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen. 155(2020)11-16. doi: 10.1016/j.zefq.2020.06.012

Advanced Practice Nursing in Kenya

Contact:
Aga Khan University – School of Nursing and Midwifery, East Africa
Kenyan Nurses Association

Role

The role of the Advanced Practice Nurse in Kenya is in development(Rasul, 2020; Sahib et al., 2020).  They role has yet to be developed and has met significant pushback in the past to attempt to advance nursing practice (East et al, 2014).  

Some of the greatest barriers identified include: lack of advanced nursing role regulation, lack of regional benchmark, medical profession (Dela Christmals, Crous, & Armstrong, 2019; East et al, 2014).  Meanwhile, significant healthcare gaps, particularly throughout rural parts of Kenya along with nurses making up the majority of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) drives the advancement of nursing practice to promote Kenya’s health disparities (Dela Christmals, Crous, & Armstrong, 2019).  

While the role has not been yet developed, Kenya has made significant strides to facilitate the process to advance nursing practice.   In November 2020, the Aga Khan University in Pakistan, hosted a conference to promote the role of the Advanced Practice Nurse in Pakistan and West Africa, and during that conference Rasul (2020, November) reported expanded masters level education programs for Advanced Practice Nurses in Kenya and reported a midwifery program would be developed by 2021.  

Most recently, the Aga Khan University posted on May 6, 2022 that the Kenyan government approved the nursing and midwifery policy facilitated by the AKU demonstrating the imminent implementation of a formal APN role in Kenya and SSA.

Specialization

Meanwhile, Kirigia (2020) presented that the Child Health Nurse Practitioner curriculum has been nearly implemented.  This would establish the first formal initiative to provide quality graduate-level education advanced nursing practice role in the country and SSA.  The focus of the CHNP focus was determined by the majority population of SSA and being regarded as the most vulnerable to disease burden (Dela Christmals, Crous, & Armstrong, 2019).

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References:
Aga Khan University. (May 6, 2022). Government approves nursing and midwifery policy conveniened by AKU.  Retrieved July 9, 2022 from: https://www.aku.edu/news/Pages/News_Details.aspx?nid=NEWS-002763

Dela Christmals, C. & Armstrong, S.J. (2019). The essence, opportunities and threats to advanced practice nursing in Sub-Saharan Africa: A scoping review. Heliyon. 5(2019). doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02531

Dela Christmals, C., Crous, L., & Armstrong, S.J. (2019). The development of concepts for a concept-based advanced practice nursing (Child health nurse practitioner) curriculum for Sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Caring Sciences. 12(3)1410. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035580

East, L.A., Arudo, J., Loefler, M., & Evans, C. (2014). Exploring the potential for advanced nursing practice role development in Kenya: A qualitative study. BMC Nursing. 13(33). doi:10.1186/s12912-014-0033-y

Kirigia, C. (2020). Impact of advanced practice nurses and midwives on patients’ outcomes: A systematic review. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research. 10(6). doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.1246230.v1

Rasul, F. (2020, November). President’s Address. Shaping the future: Introducing advanced practice nursing in Pakistan and East Africa.  Aga Khan University, Pakistan.  Retrieved May 22, 2022 from: https://www.aku.edu/events/apn/Pages/home.aspx

Sahib, S., Ndirangu, E., Pallangyo, E., Mbuthia, G., & Kimani, R. (2020). Introduction of an advanced practice nurse program in Kenya: A new era in nursing education.  In Sigma’s VIRTUAL 31st International Nursing Research Congress. Retrieved July 9, 2022 from: https://sigma.nursingrepository.org/bitstream/handle/10755/21045/Shaibu_Poster.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Advanced Practice Nursing in Panama

Contact:
National Nurses Association of Panama

Role

The role of Advanced Practice Nursing in Panama is not currently observed to be in development. There are several generalized contextual barriers (i.e. pushback from physician organizations, lack of nursing role standardization) in developing the role throughout Latin America and Panama is not and exception to that situation (Zug et al., 2016). In addition, there are barriers based on general availability of healthcare staff per 1000 population. Sheer and Wong (2008) pointed out the disparities of health professionals in Panama whereas the Advanced Practice Nurse role is typically facilitated when there is a greater proportion of nurses per 1000 population and a gap in physician availability (Sheer & Wong, 2008). The following table shows the basic comparisons of two nations with significant APN role advancement compared to Panama:

Sheer and Wong (2008) pointed out the disparities of health professionals in Panama whereas the Advanced Practice Nurse role is typically facilitated when there is a greater proportion of nurses per 1000 population and a gap in physician availability (Sheer & Wong, 2008). The following table shows the basic comparisons of two nations with significant APN role advancement compared to Panama:

[Table: World Bank website. Nurses & Midwives and Physicians per 1000 population]

Additionally, Panama is largely a proponent of supporting host country nationals for specific jobs including physicians and nurses, as a result foreign education is not transferrable unless you are formally a Panamanian citizen or you are formally married to one (Czark, B., n.d.).

Meanwhile, there are significant gaps in healthcare primarily outside of Panama City where the majority of medical providers reside and work. This leaves potential gaps that would be more ideal to allow nurse practice advancement. Currently, there are medical brigades (aka medical missions) permitted allowing healthcare providers from other nations to provide health services on a voluntary basis; such opportunities can be found online in abundance.

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References:
Czark, B. (n.d.). 25 jobs forbidden to foreigners in Panama. Retrieved July 1, 2022 from: https://livinginpanama.com/panama/jobs-forbidden-foreigners/

Sheer, B. & Wong, F.K.Y. (2008).  The development of advanced nursing practice globally.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(3),204-211.

World Bank, The. Statistics: Nurses and midwives per 1000 population for Panama, Netherlands, and United States. Retrieved July 1, 2022 from: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.MED.PHYS.ZS?locations=PA-US-NL

World Bank, The. Statistics: Physicians per 1000 population for Panama, Netherlands, and United States. Retrieved July 1, 2022 from: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.MED.PHYS.ZS?locations=PA-US-NL

Zug, K.E., De Bortoli Cassiani, S.H., Pulcini, J., Bassalobre Garcia, A., Aguierre-Boza, F., & Park, J. (2016). Advanced practice nursing in Latin America and the Caribbean: Regulation education and practice. Revisita Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 24(2016). doi:10.1590/1518-8345.1615.2807

Advanced Practice Nursing in the Netherlands

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Contact:
Dutch Ministry of Health
Dutch Nursing Specialist Register

Role

The role of Advanced Practice Nurses in the Netherlands is the “Certified Nurse Specialist” and in scope is most comparable to that of the more Nurse Practitioner (VSR, 2022).  Introduction of this role started in 1997 (Storedur & Leonard, 2010; Van den Brink et al., 2019).  The Clinical Nurse Specialist role in the Netherlands had initially developed as an alternative health provider for general practice physicians based on a general practitioner shortage (Dierick-van Daele, 2010; Stordeur & Leonard, 2010; Zwijnenberg & Bours 2012).  Progressively, the role expanded as the health system responded with generalized acceptance and improvement of cost efficiency and outcomes (Maier, 2019; Van den Brink, 2019; VSR, 2019).  The scope of practice for Dutch Nurse Practitioners primarily includes:

  • Advanced assessment (Dierick-van Daele, 2010)
  • Diagnosing and making decisions for further treatment (Dierick-van Daele, 2010)
  • Full Prescriptive authority within specialization (Maier, 2019)
  • Provision of procedures necessary for medication treatment (Zwinjenberg & Bours, 2012)
  • Referrals to primary or secondary services (Dierick-van Daele, 2010)
  • Autonomous practice without physician supervision (Van den Brink et al., 2019)

As the role has progressively developed, Van den Brink et al. (2019) identified the practice of care in hospital settings and identified

Since the introduction of the Nurse Practitioner role in the Netherlands, studies began showing that the role significantly addressed areas of patient care that were not previously adequately addressed by their physician staff (Stordeur & Leonard, 2010).  While the role is not intended to replace that of physicians, it has been greatly observed as a complimentary role and is pursuing more autonomous roles for Nurse Practitioners to perform patient care in patients homes and management of chronic illnesses (Storeur & Leonard, 2010; Maier, 2019).

Education and Certification

A four-year bachelor degree is necessary to work as a registered nurse in the Netherlands (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007).  The advancement of nursing practice to become a Certified Nurse Specialist requires an individual to receive a 2-year dual Master of Advanced Nursing Practice (MANP) degree (Dierick-van Daele, 2010; Stordeur & Leonard, 2010; VSR 2022).  In the event an advanced practice nurse would like to practice in the Netherlands, there are several nations of the EU including Switzerland, Iceland, Norway, or Lichtensetin in which registration is transferrable (VSR, 2022).  If an individual received their APN training outside of these nations, they will need to first complete the MANP degree, however individuals may qualify for a shortened trajectory based on their previous training (VSR, 2022).

The Dutch have been very proactive in developing a model to facilitate this role development, including having their APN students experience through immersion the Nurse Practitioner role outside their country (Ter Maten & Garcia-Maas, 2010).   Registration for Advanced Practice Nurses in the Netherlands requires individuals to register under a separate registry (the Verpleegugkundig Specialist Register [VSR]) from that of registered nurses, maintained by a division of the Central Information Centre for Professional Practitioners, an branch under the Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007; VSR, 2017).

Specialties

Based on the needs of the Dutch health system, there have been five main specialties recognized for the CNS in the Netherlands, divided into two categories: general (or somatic) health and mental health as follows (VSR, 2017):

  • Preventive Care
  • Acute Care
  • Intensive Care
  • Chronic Care
  • Mental Health

The curriculum for further specialization (i.e. cardiology, primary care) is then incorporated within the specific graduate coursework of one of the above specialties (VSR, 2017).

Have information to add to this page?

References:
Delamaire, M. & Lafortune, G. (2010). Nurses in advanced roles: A description and evaluation of experiences in 12 developed countries.  OECD Health Working Papers, 54, OECD Publishing.http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kmbrcfms5g7-en

Dierick-van Daele, A. (2010).  The Introduction of the Nurse Practitioner in General Practice [electronic publication].  Schering-Plough.  Retrieved from: http://arno.unimaas.nl/show.cgi?fid=20140

Maier, M.B. (2019). Nurse prescribing of medicines in 13 European countriesHuman Resources for Health. 95(2019), doi:10.1186/s12960-019-0429-6

Pulcini, J., Jelic, M., Gul, R, Loke, A.Y. (2009).  An international survey on advanced practice nursing, education, practice, and regulation.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 42(1),31-39.  doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01322.x

Robinson, S. & Griffiths, P. (2007).  Nursing education and regulation: International profiles and perspectives [online publication].  Retrieved from:http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/348772/1/NurseEduProfiles.pdf

Sheer, B. & Wong, F.K. (2008).  The development of advanced nursing practice globally.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(3),204-211.

Stordeur, S. & Leonard, C. (2010).  Challenges in physician supply planning: The case of Belgium.  Human Resources for Health, 8(28),1-11.  doi:10.1186/1478-4491-8-28

Ter Maten, A. & Garcia-Maas, L. (2010).  Dutch advanced nursing practice students: Role development through international short-term immersion.  Journal of Nursing Education, 48(4), 226-231.

Van den Brink, G.T.W.J., Kouwen, A.J., Hooker, R.S., Vermeulen, H. & Laurant, M.G.H. (2019). An activity analysis of Dutch hospital-based physician assistants and nurse practitionersHuman Resources for Health.  78(2019).  doi:10.1186/s12960-019-0423-z

Verpleegkundig Specialisten Register [VSR] (2017). More information (in English) about the profession of the certified nurse specialist: The nurse practitioner in the Netherlands.  Retrieved from: https://www.venvn.nl/media/zvofiilk/additional-information-about-the-certified-nurse-specialist.pdf  

Verpleegkundig Specialist Register [VSR] (2022). Foreign graduates: The nurse practitioner in the Netherlands [webpage]. Retrieved June 28, 2022 from: https://www-venvn-nl.translate.goog/registers/verpleegkundig-specialisten-register/registratie/buitenslands-gediplomeerden/?_x_tr_sl=auto&_x_tr_tl=en&_x_tr_hl=en&_x_tr_pto=wapp

Zwijnenberg, N.C. & Bours, G.J. (2012).  Nurse practitioners and physician assistants in Dutch hospitals: their role, extent of substitution and facilitators and barriers experienced in the reallocation of tasks.  Journal of  Advanced Nursing, 68(6),1235-1246.  doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05823.x

[Initially published 16 Aug 2013; revised 1 Jul 2022]

Advanced Practice Nursing in the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland)

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Contact:
Nursing & Midwifery Council
Royal College of Nursing

Country Specific Resource Links:
Advanced Practice Toolkit – repository for UK specific resources for practice

Role

The role of Advanced Practice Nurses in the United Kingdom (UK) is primarily represented as Advanced Nurse Practitioners (ANPs; RCN, 2012).  While the title of ANP is used by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN), there had been inconsistencies among the general public as to the term to call ANPs in the country, and various are used as: advanced clinical practice (ACP) nurse, nurse practitioner, registered nurse practitioner, clinical nurse practitioner, senior nurse practitioner, advanced nurse practitioner, and association nurse practitioner (Morgan, 2010; RCGP, 2020).

The ANP role was first introduced in the UK with the initiation of a Nurse Practitioner program focusing on primary health care at the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) in 1991-1992 (NP/APN Network, 2020; Sheer & Wong, 2008).  Much of the push for development of this role was to ease the overbearing workload of the general practitioners (primary care physicians) in the country, and this largely continues to drive the need for this role (NP/APN Network, 2020; Pulcini, Jelic, Gul, & Loke, 2009).  Delamaire and Lafortune (2010), further identified that improving the quality of care additionally drives role development in the UK.

While the role has been continually developed and internationally is considered at a more advanced stage of APN advancement, the role is not formally regulated which greatly prevents further advancement and maintains inconsistencies in both educational and professional standards (Evans et al., 2020; NP/APN Network, 2020).

Currently ANPs in the UK have both prescriptive authority and work autonomously, two role qualities that have demonstrate significant advancement of the advanced practice nurse role (RCN, 2013; RCN, 2022).  Because of the origination in primary care, the ANP role in the UK is to perform the same care as a general practitioner (Morgan, 2010).  Additionally, the role has progressively been integrated and widely embraced in the UK health system (Evans et al., 2020).

Outside of the ANP role in the UK, there are various specializations offered for general nurses allowing them to become a level 2 nurse, which is a role that is registered by the Nursing and Midwifery Council in the UK (NMC, 2013).  While these roles do require additional education, they are not the same as the ANP role described above.

There is a role of the midwife in the UK regulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Board.  This role is unique in that all midwives have a supervisor midwife to provide a check in quality of care, reflecting a role and regulatory structure existing since 1902 (NMC, 2010).

Education and Certification

Education for the Advanced Nurse Practitioner in the UK has been occurring at the masters level for more than 20 years and the majority of ANPs in the UK possess a graduate degree (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010; RCN, 2022; Savrin, 2009).   While the recommended standard for advanced nurse practitioners in the UK is set by the recommendations by the Royal College of Nursing, it is not required that all educational programs in the country follow these recommendations, and consequentially the role varies according to health institution’s policies (Evans et al., 2020; King, Tod, & Sanders, 2017; Morgan, 2010).

Registration as an Advanced Nurse Practitioner in the UK is required as a nurse, and there is not a separate registry outside of that of the general nursing registry (RCN, 2022b).  Licensure of nursing is accepted from other nations as an Advanced Nurse Practitioner, provided an individual can follow the required process to do so (RCN, 2022b).

To help with APN role standardization, as of 2017 the RCN proposed a national certification to provide regulation for the standard scope of practice.  While the momentum to provide such standardization has been growing over the years, inconsistency in advanced nursing education continues to beleaguer role continuity (Evans et al., 2020; King, Tod, & Sanders, 2017; NP/APN Network, 2020).

Specialties

The role of the ANP in the UK was greatly focused on primary health care (Pulcini et al., 2009).

For registered nurse specialists, there are currently various specialties that level 1 nurses can specialize in (RCN, 2013):

  • Registered specialist community public health nurse (SCPHN) qualification in
    • Family
    • Health visitor
    • Occupational health
    • Non-specific
    • School nurse
  • Specialist Practice Qualification
    • Adult nursing
    • Children’s nursing
    • Community children’s nursing
    • Mental health nursing
    • District nursing
    • General practice nursing
    • Learning disability nurse
    • Mental health

While these are the registration qualifications recognized by the NMC in the UK, nurses can have a specialization in a specific subject of nursing (i.e. epilepsy, Parkinson’s, cancer).

Have information to add to this page?

References:
Delamaire, M. & Lafortune, G. (2010). Nurses in advanced roles: A description and evaluation of experiences in 12 developed countries.  OECD Health Working Papers, 54, OECD Publishing.http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kmbrcfms5g7-en

Evans, C., Pearce, R., Greaves, S., & Blake, H. (2020). Advanced clinical practitioners in primary care in the UK: A qualitative study of workforce transformation.  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17(4500), doi:103390/ijerph17124500

King, R., Tod, A., & Sanders, T. (2017). Development and regulation of advanced nurse practitioners in the UK and internationally. Nursing Standard, 32(14). pp.43-50.  doi: 10.7748/ns.2017.e10858

Morgan, S. (2010, July 9).  What are the differences in nurse practitioner training and scope of practice in the US and UK?  NursingTimes.net.  Retrieved from: http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/clinical-zones/district-and-community-nursing/what-are-the-differences-in-nurse-practitioner-training-and-scope-of-practice-in-the-us-and-uk/5017012.article

NP / APN Network (2020). Guidelines on advanced practice nursing 2020 [online publication].   International Council of Nurses. Geneva, Switzerland.

Nursing and Midwifery Council [NMC] (n.d.).  Registering as a nurse or midwife in the United Kingdom: For applicants outside the European Economic Area [online document].  Retrieved from: http://www.nmc-uk.org/Documents/Registration/Registering%20as%20a%20nurse%20or%20midwife%20from%20outside%20EU%20or%20EEA.pdf

Pulcini, J., Jelic, M., Gul, R, Loke, A.Y. (2009).  An international survey on advanced practice nursing, education, practice, and regulation.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 42(1),31-39.  doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01322.x

Robinson, S. & Griffiths, P. (2007).  Nursing education and regulation: International profiles and perspectives [online publication].  Retrieved from:http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/348772/1/NurseEduProfiles.pdf

Royal College of General Practitioners [RCGP] (2020). Core capabilities framework for advanced clinical practice (nurses) working in general practice / primary care in England [online book]. Health Education England, NHS. England.

Royal College of Nursing [RCN] (2012).  Advanced nurse practitioners: An RCN guide to advanced nursing practice, advanced nurse practitioners and programme accreditation [electronic document].  Retrieved from: http://www.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/146478/003207.pdf

Royal College of Nursing [RCN] (2013).  RCN Factsheet: Specialist nursing in the UK.  Retrieved from: http://www.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/501921/4.13_RCN_Factsheet_on_Specialist_nursing_in_UK_-_2013.pdf

Royal College of Nursing [RCN] (2022a). Advanced practice standards. Retrieved June 19, 2022 from: https://www.rcn.org.uk/Professional-Development/Advanced-Practice-Standards

Royal College of Nursing [RCN] (2022b). Register as a nurse or midwife if you trained outside the UK. Retrieved June 19, 2022 from: https://www.nmc.org.uk/registration/joining-the-register/register-nurse-midwife/trained-outside-uk/

Savrin, C. (2009). Growth and development of the nurse practitioner role around the globe.  Journal of Pediatric Health Care 23, (5),310-314.

Sheer, B. (2007).  Nurse practitioners on the move: The journey to the United States.  Topics In Advanced Nursing eJournal. 7(2).  Retrieved from: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560673

Sheer, B. & Wong, F.K. (2008).  The development of advanced nursing practice globally.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(3),204-211.

[Originally Published October 7, 2013. Updated June 19, 2022]

Advanced Practice Nursing in Latvia

Contact:
Latvian Nurses Association

Role

The role of Advanced Practice Nursing in Latvia is not currently observed to be in development. Most recently Latvia has prioritized standardization of their registered nursing curriculum, identifying that by the end of 2022 to have registered nurses trained at the bachelor’s level (WHO, 2020). Traditionally the health system has allowed for various nursing specialties, but did not have a general nurse role. The initiative ratified by the Latvian Parliament has undergone the establishment of a generalize nursing qualification, and then allow nurses to specialize further afterward (WHO, 2020).

Since the nation has yet to formally establish their nursing fundamental curriculum and qualifications, the advancement of the nursing role toward a master’s degree level and provision of an expounded scope of practice is not yet underway.

Meanwhile, there is a significant gap of healthcare workers throughout the nation, particularly for individuals to work in the traditional physician scope of practice as well in rural settings. Additionally, evaluation of burnout of the nursing force within Latvia has identified that nurses feel a significant gap in feeling empowered and accomplishment (Circenis et al., 2017). In theory, if nurses were given additional opportunities for professional growth and increased autonomy, they may have reduced burn out (Twigg, D. & McCullough, 2014). As a result Latvia does have several significant potential factors to promote the advancement of the nursing role.

Have information to add to this page?

References:
Circenis, K., Deklava, L., Millere, I. et al. (2017). Fatigue and burnout among Latvian nurses. Global Journal of Psychology Research New Trends and Issues. 7(3), 111-116. doi:10.18844/gjpr.v7i3.2856

Twigg, D. & McCullough, K. (2014). Nurse retention: A review of strategies to create and enhance positive practice environments in clinical settings. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 51(1). 85-92. doi:101016/j.ijnurstu.2013.05.015

Veide, S., Lember, M. & Põlluste, K. (2015). Latvia.  In Kringos, D.S., Boerma, W.G.W., Hutchinson, A. et al. (Eds.) Building primary care in a changing Europe: Case Studies [Internet].  European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Copenhagen, Denmark.

World Health Organization [WHO] (2020). Postgraduate training in Latvia. Retrieved from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/336238/WHO-EURO-2020-1304-41054-55734-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Advanced Practice Nursing in Norway

Contact:
Norwegian Nurses Organisation (NNO)
Western Norway University of Applied Sciences

Role

The role of Advanced Practice Nursing in Norway has most recently explored and is currently in active development.  According to Holm Hansen et al. (2020) the role was most recently introduced through an extended pilot including both the nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles (Holm Hansen et al., 2020).  Through this extensive introduction, key barriers to developing the role have been identified.  One of the biggest gaps at this time is the lack of formal role protection in the country (Østvik, 2017).

Education, Certification, and Specialties

Both the bachelor and master’s level educational programs for registered nurses are regulated, creating a solid foundation for the advancement of nursing practice (Holm Hansen et al., 2020).  Since the master’s level degree has been available for nurses since 2015 which allows advanced practice nursing to be able to more easily embrace the APN role (Østvik, 2017). With the piloted roles described by Holm Hansen et al. (2020), advanced practice nursing in Norway has core curriculum and training at the master’s level, with 120 credits for program completion (WNU, 2022).  However because of the lack of formal recognition of the APN role, the APN educational curriculum is not yet nationally regulated (Østvik, 2017)

Have information to add to this page?

References:
Holm Hansen, E., Boman, E., Bing-Jonsson, P., & Fagerstrom, L.M. (2020). Introducing nurse practitioners into Norwegian primary healthcare- Experiences and learning.  Research and Theory for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 34(1) doi:10.1891/1541.6577.34.1.21

Østvik, E. (2017). Country Practice Profiles: Norway [Webpage]. NP / APN Network. Retrieved June 5, 2022 from: http://icn-apnetwork.org

Western Norway University of Applied Sciences [WNU] (2022). Advanced Practice Nursing. Website.  Retrieved June 4, 2022 from: https://www.hvl.no/en/studies-at-hvl/study-programmes/advanced-nursing-practice/.

Advanced Practice Nursing in Sweden

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Contact:
Vårdförbundet

Role

The role of Advanced Practice Nursing in Sweden has been explored for more than a decade, but the role is still in its infancy. The role has been in development, but not formally established (Bergström, & Lindh, 2018).

Historically in 2005, the Advanced Clinical Nurse Specialist role has been piloted through programs first offered (Lindblad, et al., 2010; Egerod et al., 2021).    This role primarily 

The role of APNs in Sweden has been under evaluation and experimentation in general practice (primary health care) and has been based on an institutional-specific model allowing varying levels of scope of practice (Lindblad et al, 2010).  Because of the lack of APN role identification, the role is currently under development to be of the greatest benefit to the Swedish health care system (Lindblad et al., 2010).  Further, there is reported ongoing interest in the Swedish health care system for more Nurse Specialists (Vårdförbundet, 2013; Vårdförbundet 2019).  

The nurse to physician ratio in Sweden reportedly was 2.7 to one which reportedly is just under the average among European countries, but unfortunately has the lowest number per 1,000 population at 11.1 (Alenius, Lindqvist, and Tishelman, 2019).  Additionally, there has been a large gap in licensed physicians, largely reflected in the majority (59%) of current physicians being educated in another country (Alenius, Lindqvist, and Tishelman, 2019).  While there is a gap in physician shortage, which facilitates the advancement of nursing practice, assumedly the lack of registered nurses in the country also impedes the progress due to the lack of nursing supply to advance.

In Sweden to help the ongoing needs of the overall population, nurses have been given the prescribing authority since 1994, allowing registered nurses limited prescriptive authority for initial treatment of various acute concerns as urinary tract infections, throat infections (HAI Europe, 2012; Maier, 2019).

 

Education, Certification, and Specialties

Nurse Specialists are trained at the masters level (Vårdförbundet, 2013; Vårdförbundet 2019).  The current programs in Sweden have been educating individuals for the Advanced Clinical Nurse Specialist role since 2005 (Lindblad et al., 2010).  The program primarily focuses on 60 to 75 additional university level education credits (Vårdförbundet 2019).

Various specializations at this time are offered and identified by Vårdförbundet (2019) as:

  • Ambulance Care
  • Anesthesia
  • District Nurse
  • Intensive Care
  • General Medicine
  • Surgery
  • Oncology
  • Surgery
  • Psychiatry
  • Geriatric Care
  • Pediatrics

While there are various programs of specialization that are offered, the major limitation to the role is the lack of legal formal establishment of the role.  As a result the utilization of each role is often limited to the organization’s preference and policies.

Have information to add to this page?

References:
Alenius, L.S., Lindqvist, R., & Tishelman, C. (2019). Sweden.  In Rafferty, A.M., Busse, R., Zander-Jentsch, B. et al. (Eds.) Strengthening health systems through nursing: Evidence from 14 European countries [Internet].  European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Bergström, P. & Lindh, V. (2018). Developing the role of Swedish advanced practice nurse (APN) through a blended learning master’s program: Consequences of knowledge organisation, Nurse Education in Practice, 28(1471-5953), pp.196-201, doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2017.10.030

Egerod, I., Kaldan, G., Nordentoft, S., Larsen, A., Herling, S. F., Thomsen, T., & Endacott, R. (2021). Skills, competencies, and policies for Advanced Practice Critical Care Nursing in Europe: A scoping review. Nurse Education in Practice, 54, 103142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2021.103142

HAI Europe (2012). The next chapter in promotion of healthcare professionals: Nurse prescribers [fact sheet]. Retrieved from: http://haieurope.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/27-July-2011-HAI-Europe-Nurse-Prescribers-Factsheet.pdf

Lindblad, E., Hallman, E.B., Gillsjo, C., Lindblad, U., & Fagerstom, L. (2010).  Experiences of the new role of advanced practice nurses in Swedish primary health care–A qualitative study.  International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16, 69-74.  doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01810.x

Vårdförbundet (2013).  Specialist Nurse [translated by Google Translate].  Retrieved from: https://www.vardforbundet.se/Min-profession/Sjukskoterska/Specialistsjukskoterska/

Vårdförbundet (2019). Specialist Nurse [translated by Google Translate]. Retrieved from: https://www.vardforbundet.se/rad-och-stod/karriar-och-utveckling/karriarvagar/vidareutbildning-till-sjukskoterska/

[Originally published 9 September 2013, revised 2 June, 2022]

Advanced Practice Nursing in Pakistan

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Contact:
Aga Khan University, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan
Pakistan Nursing Council

Role

The role of the Advanced Practice Nurse in Pakistan is in development. The role has not been formally developed, however based on the interest to increase health care access to individuals in rural areas.  In November 2020, the Aga Khan University in Pakistan hosted a conference to promote the role of the Advanced Practice Nurse in Pakistan, and during that conference Rasul (2020, November) reported expanded roles for registered nurses to include specializations of neonatology, critical care, and pediatrics with mental health and pediatrics in the future.  Further, Rasul (2020, November) reported the offering of the expanded specializations would be “to prepare graduates to work as APNs once an official scope of practice has been created.”

Most recently, the Aga Khan University (2022, May 19) has announced their first pilot APN program endorsed by the Pakistan Nursing Council that officially will introduce the APN role to the country.  While the legal infrastructure isn’t in place as of yet, this is another major step toward developing the role.

Have information to add to this page?

References:

Aga Khan University (2022, May 19). AKU to launch first advanced practice nursing training in Pakistan.  Retrieved May 22, 2022 from: https://www.aku.edu/news/Pages/News_Details.aspx?nid=NEWS-002769

Rasul, F. (2020, November). President’s Address. Shaping the future: Introducing advanced practice nursing in Pakistan and East Africa.  Aga Khan University, Pakistan.  Retrieved May 22, 2022 from: https://www.aku.edu/events/apn/Pages/home.aspx

Advanced Practice Nursing in Finland

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*Finland will allow transferral of RN licensure from various parts of the EU (FNA)
Not able to find information regarding transferral of advanced practice degrees

Contact:
Finnish Nurses Association
Terveydenhuollon Oikeusturvakeskus (National Authority for Medico-Legal Affairs)

Role

The role of the Advanced Practice Nurse has developed over the years in Finland.  The initial discussions of advancing nursing practice in Finland started in the 1980’s (FNA, 2018).  Over time the advanced practice nursing role grew to two chief roles, that of the Advanced Nurse and Public Health Nurse, both of which were prepared with graduated level schooling (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010).

Starting in 2001, the first Clinical Nurse Specialists (CNS) started practicing at the Helsinki University Hospital (FNA, 2018, p.29).  Since then the CNS role has grown significantly.  Meanwhile need to improve access for health care services for an aging population has promoted the advancement of the Nurse Practitioner role (NP / APN Network, 2017).

Meanwhile, Delamaire and Lafortune (2010), reported that Finland was of the top nations with the highest number of nurses per 1000 people in the country at 15.5; thus indicating a surplus of nurses.  Meanwhile, they indicated that Finland held a mildly below average ratio of doctors per capita (2.7 to 1000 people; European average was 2.8) (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010).  As a result, Finland presents itself as good place to further develop the Advanced Practice Nursing role, with a higher ratio of nurses and a lower number of doctors per capita, similar to that of the United States and United Kingdom (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010).

Specialties and Education

APNs have been working in various roles including rural healthcare, general practice, and acute care (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010, FNA, 2018).  As described above, the roles of CNS and Nurse Practitioner are prevalent, but in addition to these registered nurses in Finland have the choice of specializing in various categories nearing graduation of nursing school in acute care, geriatric care, mental health, multi-cultural, pediatrics, palliative care and youth and adolescent care (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007, NP / APN Network, 2017).  Additionally, an individual can choose to be a nurse midwife with an additional year of schooling (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007).

Education for Advanced Practice Nurses in Finland produced it’s first graduates in 2006 (DeGeest et al., 2008; Fagerström & Glasberg, 2011).  Education for the registered nurse is comparable to various other EU nations, usually requires a bachelor degree typically taking 3.5 years, and 4 years for the public health nurse (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007; FNA, 2018).  The advanced degrees are available afterward to those who desire further advancement in scope of practice at the graduate level (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010).  Registration for healthcare individuals within Finland is maintained by the National Authority for Medico-Legal Affairs (Terveydenhuollon Oikeusturvakeskus).

According to the Finnish Nurses Association (2018) the most developed roles of AP Ns in Finland are the Clinical Nurse Specialist and Nurse Practitioner.  Both roles are described as, “At the advanced level, independent clinical nursing and health promotion as well as the related ethical decision-making, teaching and instruction, consultation, evidence-based practices, management, cooperation, research, and development” (p.32).  In addition to this the roles are more clearly differentiated below:

  • Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS)
    • The role has been in existence since 2001 in Finland (FNA, 2018, p.29).
    • CNSs are employed in various parts of the hospital systems in Finland, more predominantly at the university hospitals (FNA, 2018, p.29).
    • The role has four spheres: patient care, nursing organization, and scholarship.  Any of the CNS roles require a master’s level degree (NP / APN Network, 2017).
    • “Broad-based work aimed to ensure and develop the quality of nursing, foster the implementation of evidence-based nursing and support the organization’s strategic work.” (FNA, 2018, p.32)
  • Nurse Practitioner
    • The FNA (2018) identifies the Nurse Practitioner role as one that more specifically is, “Broad-based and comprehensive nursing, independent examination of patients and assessments of their need for care as well as starting treatment based on symptoms and monitoring both acute and chronic health conditions.” (p.32)
    • The role requires a master’s degree and primarily performed by APNs working in primary care.  Individuals can additionally pursue an academic post graduate degree (doctorate) (FNA, 2018, p.32).
    • The role is not nationally regulated, and as a result it varies according to organizational oversight.

Other roles identified NP / APN Network (2017) are:

  • Specialized Nurses in Clinical Practice
    • Roles largely reflect specialization in a specific area of concentration.  This requires 30-60 ETCS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) and provides advanced professional roles in the selected specialization (NP / APN Network, 2017).
    • The expanded roles are not regulated, and rather institution specific (NP / APN Network, 2017).
  • Nurse Prescriber
    • A role designated for limited prescribing of medications.  This is performed with physician oversight and requires 45 ECTS post graduate training in order to be able to have this permission (FNA, 2018, p.33).
    • According to the NP / APN Network (2017), most APNs in Finland do not have prescribing authority.

Have information to add to this page?

References and Influential Articles:
De Geest, S., Moons, P., Callens, B., Gut., C., Lindpainter, L., & Sprig, R. (2008).  Introducting advanced practice nurses/nurse practitioners in health care systems: A framework for reflection and analysis.  Swiss Med Weekly, 138(43-44),621-628.

Delamaire, M. & Lafortune, G. (2010). Nurses in advanced roles: A description and evaluation of experiences in 12 developed countries.  OECD Health Working Papers, 54, OECD Publishing.http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kmbrcfms5g7-en

Fagerström, L. & Glasberg, A.L. (2011).  The first evaluation of the advanced practice nurse role in Finland – The perspective of nurse leaders.  Journal of Nursing Management, 19, 925-932.  doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01280.x

Finnish Nurses Association [FNA] (2018). New roles for nurses – Quality to future social welfare and health care services.  Retrieved May 17, 2022 from: https://1553422.169.directo.fi/@Bin/e02495795f0c2e137dc85385beb70747/1652808570/application/pdf/256215/APN_RAPORTTI_ENG_VALMIS_pieni.pdf

HAI Europe (2012). The next chapter in promotion of healthcare professionals: Nurse prescribers [fact sheet]. Retrieved from: http://haieurope.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/27-July-2011-HAI-Europe-Nurse-Prescribers-Factsheet.pdf

Jokiniemi K. (2014). Clinical Nurse Specialist Role in Finnish Health Care. Dissertations in Health Science. U niversity of Eastern Finland. Available in: http://epublications.uef.fi/pub/urn_isbn_978‐952‐61‐1579‐ 5/urn_isbn_978‐952‐61‐1579‐5.pdf

NP / APN Network (2017). Country specific practice profiles. Retrieved May 16, 2022 from: https://international.aanp.org/Practice/Profiles

Robinson, S. & Griffiths, P. (2007).  Nursing education and regulation: International profiles and perspectives [online publication].  Retrieved from: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/348772/1/NurseEduProfiles.pdf

Tynkkynen, L.K. (n.d.). Limited right for nurses to prescribe medication.  Health Policy Monitor.  Retrieved from: http://www.hpm.org/en/Surveys/THL_-_Finland/15/Limited_right_for_nurses_to_prescribe_medication.html

[ORIGINALLY POSTED SEPTEMBER 24, 2013.  UPDATED MAY 17, 2022]