Advanced Practice Nursing in Panama

Contact:
National Nurses Association of Panama

Role

The role of Advanced Practice Nursing in Panama is not currently observed to be in development. There are several generalized contextual barriers (i.e. pushback from physician organizations, lack of nursing role standardization) in developing the role throughout Latin America and Panama is not and exception to that situation (Zug et al., 2016). In addition, there are barriers based on general availability of healthcare staff per 1000 population. Sheer and Wong (2008) pointed out the disparities of health professionals in Panama whereas the Advanced Practice Nurse role is typically facilitated when there is a greater proportion of nurses per 1000 population and a gap in physician availability (Sheer & Wong, 2008). The following table shows the basic comparisons of two nations with significant APN role advancement compared to Panama:

Sheer and Wong (2008) pointed out the disparities of health professionals in Panama whereas the Advanced Practice Nurse role is typically facilitated when there is a greater proportion of nurses per 1000 population and a gap in physician availability (Sheer & Wong, 2008). The following table shows the basic comparisons of two nations with significant APN role advancement compared to Panama:

[Table: World Bank website. Nurses & Midwives and Physicians per 1000 population]

Additionally, Panama is largely a proponent of supporting host country nationals for specific jobs including physicians and nurses, as a result foreign education is not transferrable unless you are formally a Panamanian citizen or you are formally married to one (Czark, B., n.d.).

Meanwhile, there are significant gaps in healthcare primarily outside of Panama City where the majority of medical providers reside and work. This leaves potential gaps that would be more ideal to allow nurse practice advancement. Currently, there are medical brigades (aka medical missions) permitted allowing healthcare providers from other nations to provide health services on a voluntary basis; such opportunities can be found online in abundance.

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References:
Czark, B. (n.d.). 25 jobs forbidden to foreigners in Panama. Retrieved July 1, 2022 from: https://livinginpanama.com/panama/jobs-forbidden-foreigners/

Sheer, B. & Wong, F.K.Y. (2008).  The development of advanced nursing practice globally.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(3),204-211.

World Bank, The. Statistics: Nurses and midwives per 1000 population for Panama, Netherlands, and United States. Retrieved July 1, 2022 from: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.MED.PHYS.ZS?locations=PA-US-NL

World Bank, The. Statistics: Physicians per 1000 population for Panama, Netherlands, and United States. Retrieved July 1, 2022 from: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.MED.PHYS.ZS?locations=PA-US-NL

Zug, K.E., De Bortoli Cassiani, S.H., Pulcini, J., Bassalobre Garcia, A., Aguierre-Boza, F., & Park, J. (2016). Advanced practice nursing in Latin America and the Caribbean: Regulation education and practice. Revisita Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 24(2016). doi:10.1590/1518-8345.1615.2807

Advanced Practice Nursing in Latvia

Contact:
Latvian Nurses Association

Role

The role of Advanced Practice Nursing in Latvia is not currently observed to be in development. Most recently Latvia has prioritized standardization of their registered nursing curriculum, identifying that by the end of 2022 to have registered nurses trained at the bachelor’s level (WHO, 2020). Traditionally the health system has allowed for various nursing specialties, but did not have a general nurse role. The initiative ratified by the Latvian Parliament has undergone the establishment of a generalize nursing qualification, and then allow nurses to specialize further afterward (WHO, 2020).

Since the nation has yet to formally establish their nursing fundamental curriculum and qualifications, the advancement of the nursing role toward a master’s degree level and provision of an expounded scope of practice is not yet underway.

Meanwhile, there is a significant gap of healthcare workers throughout the nation, particularly for individuals to work in the traditional physician scope of practice as well in rural settings. Additionally, evaluation of burnout of the nursing force within Latvia has identified that nurses feel a significant gap in feeling empowered and accomplishment (Circenis et al., 2017). In theory, if nurses were given additional opportunities for professional growth and increased autonomy, they may have reduced burn out (Twigg, D. & McCullough, 2014). As a result Latvia does have several significant potential factors to promote the advancement of the nursing role.

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References:
Circenis, K., Deklava, L., Millere, I. et al. (2017). Fatigue and burnout among Latvian nurses. Global Journal of Psychology Research New Trends and Issues. 7(3), 111-116. doi:10.18844/gjpr.v7i3.2856

Twigg, D. & McCullough, K. (2014). Nurse retention: A review of strategies to create and enhance positive practice environments in clinical settings. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 51(1). 85-92. doi:101016/j.ijnurstu.2013.05.015

Veide, S., Lember, M. & Põlluste, K. (2015). Latvia.  In Kringos, D.S., Boerma, W.G.W., Hutchinson, A. et al. (Eds.) Building primary care in a changing Europe: Case Studies [Internet].  European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Copenhagen, Denmark.

World Health Organization [WHO] (2020). Postgraduate training in Latvia. Retrieved from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/336238/WHO-EURO-2020-1304-41054-55734-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y