Advanced Practice Nursing in Puerto Rico

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
Yes

Title:
Nurse Specialist

Nationally Certified:
Yes

Recognize Foreign License:
Yes

Treatment Authority:
No (but pending legislation to change)

Prescribing Authority:
No (but pending legislation to change)

Practice Autonomously:
No (but pending legislation to change)

Contact or more information:
Puerto Rico Health Department
Puerto Rico Nursing Practice Law (Ley 9, de 11 do octubre 1987)

Role

Puerto Rico’s integrated relationship with the United States brings many of the advanced practice nursing roles to the island.  Since Puerto Rico is a territory of the united states but is primarily governed under it’s own laws, advanced practice nursing greatly mirrors that of the United States but is still in the process of approving legislature to recognize an autonomous role for advanced nurses similar to nurse practitioners.

Education and Certification

Varying degrees exist for nursing in Puerto Rico based on the varying levels of practice.  Individuals who practice at the nursing generalist level require a bachelor’s degree, for advanced practice one needs a masters degree.  Current legislation proposals have suggested that individuals can additionally gain a doctorate of nursing practice (DNP) for further advancement and specialization (Parés Arroyo, 2015, April 4).

Currently, there are several universities in Puerto Rico that offer such advanced degrees for nurses inclduing the Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recintos de Ciencias Médicas, Arecibo, Humacao y Mayagüez; Universidad del Turabo; Universidad Interamericana en Arecibo e Inter Metro; y la UMET (Parés Arroyo, 2015, April 4).

Specialties

The nursing role in Puerto Rico mirrors that similarly to the United states with varying educational degrees and roles of nurses (Parés Arroyo, 2015, April 4):

  • Nurse Specialist – Educated with a masters degree, this specialty allows the nurse to manage more complicated health situations in a particular area of specialization.
  • Nurse Generalist – Has a bachelors degree of Science in Nursing and works with the nurse specialist to direct care of patients.
  • Associate Nurse – Has an associates degree in nursing and collaborates with planning and carrying out of direct nursing care to hospitalized patients.

Various additional roles have been suggested to clarify the advanced nursing practice role through legislation including (Parés Arroyo, 2015, April 4):

  • Doctor of Nursing Practice – Provides autonomous practice with the ability to provide services and be reimbursed through contracting with other agencies for their area of specialty.
  • Advanced Practice Nurse – Includes various specialist including: Clinical nurse specialists, nurse midwifery, anesthesia, nurse practitioners and other areas.

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References:
Parés Arroyo, M. (2015, April 4). Se especializan cada vez más las enfermeras: Un proyecto de ley propone atemperar los adelantos de esta profesión.  El Nuevo Dia.  Retrieved from: http://www.elnuevodia.com

Advanced Practice Nursing in Denmark

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
Yes

Title:
Specialist Nurse

Nationally Certified:
Uncertain

Recognize Foreign Licensure:
Yes

Treatment Authority:
Uncertain

Prescribing Authority:
Uncertain

Practice Autonomously:
No

Contact:
Danish Health and Medicines Authority (Sundhedsstyrelsen)
Danish Nurses’ Organiation [DNO] (Dansk Sygeplejeråd)

Role

The role of Advanced Practice Nurses in Denmark has been in development.  Common interests as a part of the European Union have led Denmark to explore the potential use of further Advanced Practice Nursing (Danish Nurses’ Organization, 2008; Pill, Kolbæk, Ottman, & Rasmussen, 2012).  This development however has not been perceived as a substitution for medical doctors (Pill et al., 2012).  Meanwhile, in Denmark there has been an abundance of nurses in the country, leading the European Union and amounting to more than 15 per 1,000 individuals in the population, and with a ration of 4 nurses for every doctor in country (OECD Library, 2012).

Several nursing specialties have been offered for direct practice registered nurses, anesthesia nursing, psychiatric nursing, intensive care nursing, and infection control nursing (European Commission [EC], 2000).  Each allows for more skillful knowledge and potential advanced scope of practice in their respective categories.  Additionally, three other specializations exist for nursing, nursing management and leadership, nursing education, and public health nursing (EC, 2000).  For all specialties except the public health nursing, there is no protected title provided by the national ministry of health (European Commission, 2000).  For public health nursing, the title “health visitor” has been reserved (EC, 2000).

Education and Certification

Education for entry level nursing in Denmark is at the Bachelor’s level.  Specialties are provided by and maintained at the county or regional level (EC, 2000).  Once received permissions by a specific region to practice as a specialty nurse, the Danish nurse may then practice within that specialty in any of the regions of the country, according to the regions’ regulations (EC, 2000).  Each of the programs vary in the length of their post-baccalaureate program as follows (with their received title/degree in parenthesis):

  • Anesthesia Nursing (Proof of specialty training) – 1 1/2 years
  • Psychiatry Nursing (Proof of specialty training) – 1 year
  • Infection Control Nursing (Proof of specialty training) – 3 months
  • Intensive Care Nursing (Proof of specialty training) – 1 1/2 years
  • Public Health Nursing (Nursing Diploma) – 10 months
  • Nursing Management and Leadership (Nursing Diploma) – 10 months
  • Nursing Education (Nursing Diploma) – 10 months

Masters level education is available for nurses interested in advancing their career particularly in nursing education, public health, and nursing management and leadership requiring 2 years and 6 months of training (Aarhus School of Advanced Nursing Studies, 2014; EC, 2000).

Foreign citizens are allowed to apply and participate in the Masters level studies provided they are able to pass a Danish proficiency exam and have received an acceptable Bachelors degree (UASANS, 2014).  Individuals interested in working within one of the specialized nursing categories would be required to be evaluated by the regional councils overseeing each (EC, 2000).  As an international working within Denmark, their specialty-specific permissions would then only be valid for the region from which they received permission (EC, 2000).

Specialties

While an old reference, four areas of specialty have been identified: anesthesia nursing, intensive care nursing, psychiatric nursing, and infection control nursing (EC, 2000).  For each of the specialties in intensive care, anesthesia, and psychiatry training is organized at the county level and therefore varies within the country (EC, 2000).

Beyond that of direct practice nursing specialties, the other three nursing specialties of public health nursing, psychiatric nursing, and nursing management and leadership has been offered at the University of Aarhus School of Advanced Nursing Studies (UASANS, 2014).  This school also offers a Master’s Degree for advancement of a nursing career.  This degree is suggested to offer career advancement primarily related to the advancement of the latter three non-direct practice specialties (EC, 2000).  The course curriculum allows the student to adapt their education in whichever career path interests them the most (UASANS, 2014).

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References:
Danish Nurses’ Organization (2008).  Advanced nurse practitioners – Improved health care to the chronically ill [Electronic document].  Retrieved from: http://www.dsr.dk/Artikler/Documents/Advanced_Nurse_Practitioners.pdf

European Commission (2000).  Nursing in Denmark [Electronic Document].  Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/qualifications/docs/nurses/2000-study/nurses_denmark_en.pdf

OECD Library (2012).  Health At A Glance: Europe 2012.  Retrieved from: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/9789264183896-en/03/03/index.html?itemId=/content/chapter/9789264183896-30-en

Pill, K., Kolbæk, R., Ottman, G., & Rasmussen, B. (2012).  The impact of the expanded nursing practice on professional identify in Denmark. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 26(6),329–335.

University of Aarhus School of Advanced Nursing Studies [UASANS] (2014).  Masters degree in nursing – Introduction.  Retrieved from: http://kandidat.au.dk/en/nursing/

Advanced Practice Nursing in Nicaragua

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
No Role is Officially Identified

Treatment Authority:
Registered nurses do have treatment authority

Prescribing Authority:
N/A

Contact:
Nicaragua Ministry of Health

Role

Nicaragua has significantly underserved rural communities in the nation.  The local health system is primarily run by a low number of general practitioners,  and nurses.  Each individual may be a sole healthcare provider in the local health clinic (Sequeira et al., 2011).  According to Sequeira et al. (2011), the nation’s health force comprises of 1,539 nurses and 1,138 general practitioners for a population of approximately 5.9 million people (Google, 2013).  As a result of the lack of not just general practitioners but also nurses, the undersupply of health care professionals does not lend to development of Advanced Practice Nursing at this time.  To aide the deficit of nursing professionals, another group of more than 4,000 Auxillary Nurses (similar to that of a nursing assistant) drives much of the health care services in the country (Sequeira et al., 2011).  Because the number of trained health professionals in the rural areas are few to none, the Ministry of Health in Nicaragua has utilized a large number of health volunteers to assist as health promoters in the area called the “Red Communidad” (or Net Community).  The nursing role in Nicaragua often encompasses any of the skills required to perform and train these volunteer individuals so they may make better decisions for health promotion in their areas.  These volunteer positions include Promotoras, Parteras, and Brigadistas.

Parteras are the volunteer midwives, trained by their previous local midwife or governmental training.  Promotoras are a basic volunteer who desires to know more medical-based knowledge and will resultantly facilitate decision making when an ill individual should go to the hospital.  Brigadistas may administer immunizations and at times prescribe medications according to protocols established by the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health.  Because the majority of medications in country do not require prescriptions, writing of prescriptions is based on the suggestion of the local medical expert.

There is significant evidence of APNs going to Nicaragua from more developed nations to assist in short-term provision of medical care of the underserved.  APNs going to Nicaragua work according to their education and training in their nation.

Education

The current education system for nurses requires a three year college experience with a forth year of practicum service in an assigned health clinic, post, or hospital.  Once completed, individuals receive a bachelor degree in nursing.  Further education for specialty is available in the capital, Managua for various hospital based nursing specialties (i.e. intensive care, pediatrics).

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References:
Google (2013).  Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/search?q=nicaragua+population&oq=nicaragua+population&aqs=chrome.0.69i57j0l3j69i62l2.3660j0&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

Sequeira, M., Espinoza, H., Amador, J.J., Domingo, G., Quintanilla, M., & Santos, T. (2011).  The Nicaraguan Health System.  PATH Publications. .Retrieved from: http://www.path.org/publications/files/TS-nicaragua-health-system-rpt.pdf

Updated: Jun 22, 2014
Previous Versions: Jul 30, 2013

Advanced Practice Nursing in the Russian Federation (Russia)

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
No

Contact:
Russian Nurses Association (RAMS)
US-Russian Nursing Conference Cruise

Role

There is no current role of advanced practice nurses in Russia today.  According to the World Bank, in 2010 the Russian Federation had approximately 8.5 nurses per thousand individuals, a number showing adequacy of the nursing workforce (WHO, 2013).  Additionally, there were more than four doctors per thousand individuals, also significantly adequate for healthcare today (WHO, 2013).  While these numbers are impressive, the healthcare standards in Russia have been observed to be inadequate; however, there has been consistent improvement over the last several years (Davydov & Shepin, 2010; Tashlein-Van Hueveln, 2009).

In recent years, the Russian Nurses Association (2013) in assistance with the International Council of Nurses has been updating and identifying national nursing standards since 2007 and hope to have a uniform set of standards implemented by 2015.  As the role of nursing is beginning to be established in Russia, development of Advanced Practice Nursing roles will take more time for future establishment.

Specialties

While there are no specific Advanced Practice Nursing roles present in Russia today, on 2012, the Russian Nurses Association defined several nursing specialties including (Russian Nurses Association, 2012):

  • Dietary Nursing
  • Operating Nursing
  • Anesthesia Nursing
  • Pediatric Nursing
  • Psychiatric Nursing
  • Massage Nursing
  • Specialist in Nursing Statistics

In addition, it was established that the title of “Bachelors of Nursing” would be established for senior nurses prepared at the bachelor level, a role implemented earlier in 2013 (Russian Nurses Association, 2012).

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References:
Davydov, M.I. & Shepin, O.P. (2010).  The Russian healthcare system.  Medical Solutions.  Retrieved from: http://www.healthcare.siemens.com/healthcare-magazine

Tashlein Van-Hueveln, D. (2009, August 3).  Russian healthcare: Observing nurses a world way.  Carolina Nursing News.  Retrieved from: http://carolinanursingnews.com/2009/08/03/russian-healthcare-observing-nurses-a-world-away/

Russian Nurses Association (2012).  Professional standards [Google translated version].  Retrieved from: http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=ru&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.medsestre.ru%2Ffiles%2Ffile%2Fstandart%2F0_uvedomlenie.pdf

Russian Nurses Association (2013).  Negotiations in leadership [Google translated version].  Retrieved from: http://www.medsestre.ru/new/info/36

World Bank, The (2010).  Nurses and midwives (per 1,000 people).  Retrieved from: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.MED.NUMW.P3

World Health Organization [WHO] (2013).  Aggregated Data: Density per 1000 by country.  Retrieved from: http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A1444?lang=en

Advanced Practice Nursing in Switzerland

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
Yes

Title:
Advanced Practice Nurse
Nurse Anesthetist

Nationally Certified:
Yes

Recognize Foreign Licensure:
Uncertain

Treatment Authority:
Uncertain

Prescribing Authority:
No

Practice Autonomously:
No

Contact: 
University of Basel

Role

The role of the Advanced Practice Nurse in Switzerland has been developing since 2000 with the first advanced practice nursing program.  While there is no current scope of practice that is identified in the country, Switzerland has been developing the role of APNs that most closely resemble Clinical Nurse Specialists (Sprig, Schwendimann, Spichiger, Cignacco, & De Geest, 2009).  Often individuals who are prepared at the APN level will function not at the clinical level, but rather in leadership, quality, and process improvement levels (Sprig et al., 2009).  Additionally, APNs in Switzerland have been working with more advanced assessment and specialized patient care as well, but is more done so on an organizational-based program (Imhof, Naef, Wallhagen, Schwartz, & Mahrer-Imhof, 2012).  Because the development of APNs in Switzerland has been more driven on creating new healthcare models and improved outcomes rather than a physician shortage, there is little regulation at this time that defines a clear scope of practice (De Geest et al., 2008).

The Nurse Anesthetist role is also in existence in Switzerland (International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists [IFNA], n.d.).  Reportedly there are approximately 1900 Nurse Anesthetists in Switzerland today, more than that of anesthesiologists in the country (INFA, n.d.).  Regulations vary according to region, but in general Nurse Anesthetists administer general anesthesia under the supervision of an anesthesiologist (INFA, n.d.).

Education and Certification

Education for the APN in Switzerland is provided at the masters level after an individual achieves a bachelor degree in nursing (Sprig et al., 2009).  The programs for APNs in Switzerland require an individual to have English proficiency, 2 years of clinical professional experience in nursing, and have a degree in nursing (Sprig et al., 2009).  Additionally, individuals in nursing have also graduated at the doctorate level (PhD) in nursing (Sprig et al., 2009).

Education for a Nurse Anesthetist in Switzerland requires a nurse after obtaining a four-year nursing diploma an additional 400 hours of classroom education and approximately 200 hours of clinical time (INFA, n.d.).

Specialties

While there are various specializations that APNs may function within Switzerland, those observed in the literature were of HIV/AIDS, gerontology, and general practice (primary health care) (Imhof et al., 2012; Sprig et al., 2004).

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References:
De Geest, S., Moons, P., Callens, B., Gut., C., Lindpainter, L., & Sprig, R. (2008).  Introducting advanced practice nurses/nurse practitioners in health care systems: A framework for reflection and analysis.  Swiss Med Weekly, 138(43-44),621-628.

Imhof, L., Naef, R., Wallhagen, M.I., Schartz, J., & Mahrer-Imhof, R. (2012).  Effects of an advanced practice nurse in-home health consultation program for community-dwelling persons aged 80 and older.  Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 60(12),2223-2231.  doi: 10.1111/jgs.12026

International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists [IFNA] (n.d.). Switzerland Country Page.  Retrieved from: http://ifna-int.org/ifna/page?38

Sprig, R., Nicca, D., Voggensperger, J., Unger, M., Werder, V. & Niepmann, S. (2004).  The advanced nursing practice team as a model for HIV/AIDS caregiving in Switzerland.  Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care.  15(3),47-55.  doi:10.1177/1055329003261960

Sprig, R., Schwendimann, R., Spichiger, E., Cignacco, E., & De Geest, S. (2009).  The leadership role of the Institute of nursing Science, University of Basel in launching advanced practice nursing in the German speaking European countrires.  Universitat Basel.  Retrieved from: http://nursing.unibas.ch/fileadmin/pflege/redaktion/Institut/090206_ANP_ICN_Website.pdf

Advanced Practice Nursing in Greece

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
No

Contact:
Hellenic Nurses’ Association

Role

The nursing role in Greece struggles with great job dissatisfaction today.  According to the OECD 2012 health review, Greece’s nurses report a European high of 56% stating they desire to leave their job position.  Once great contributing factor is that there are more physicians that nurses in the country, leading to a shortage of nurses to provide care (Lavdaniti et al., 2008; OECD, 2012).  As a result, there is very little support for advancing the nursing role in the country.

However, there is motivation to expand the nursing role in Greece as there is currently education and seeking out of governance of Nurse Anesthetists in the country (Hellenic Nurses’ Association, 2013).

Education and Certification

Currently, the nursing education system offers master degrees in nursing for educators and individuals in director positions in healthcare (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007).  Additionally, some doctoral degrees are also being pursued, taught and supervised by the medical schools in the country (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007).   There is currently no certification or registration for Advanced Practice Nursing in the country.  Nurses can however seek 3 additional years of training to pursue nurse midwifery.

Specialties

While the role is not particularly expanded for nurses in Greece, individuals can regard themselves as a nurse-specialist.  There are several groups of nurse-specialists recognized by the Hellenic Nurses’ Association (2013):

  • Oncology
  • Anesthesiology
  • Administration
  • Emergency and Intensive Care
  • Education
  • Primary Health Care and Community
  • Mental Health
  • Pediatric

See something and want to add to this page?

References:
Dimitriadou, A., Lavdanti, M., Theofanidis, D., Psychogiou, M., Minasidou, E. … Sapountzi-Krepia, D. (2008).  Interprofessional collaboration and collaboration among nursing staff members in Northern Greece.  International Journal of Caring Sciences. 1(3),140-146

Hellenic Nurses’ Association (2013).  Notice nursing department of anesthesiology ESNE.  Retrieved from: http://www.esne.gr/

OECD (2012). Health At a Glance: Europe 2012 (2nd ed.).  OECD Publishing.  doi: 10.1787/9789264183896-en

Robinson, S. & Griffiths, P. (2007).  Nursing education and regulation: International profiles and perspectives [online publication].  Retrieved from: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/348772/1/NurseEduProfiles.pdf

Advanced Practice Nursing in Mexico

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
No Role is Officially Identified

Contact:
Secretería de Salud
Asociación Mexicana de Enfermeras Especializadas en Medicina Crítica y Terapia Intensiva
 (Mexican Association of Specialized Nurses in Critical and Intensive Care [AMEEMCTI])

Role

Currently there is no specific advanced practice nursing role in Mexico.  Nurses are offered the ability to specialize in intensive and critical care, but to date, nursing has not taken a leader role in health care (AMEEMCTI, n.d.; Secretería de Salúd, 2013).  The 20th ANEC conference in Mexico later this year will include the readdressing of the nursing role in Mexico and will be influenced and collaborated with the International Council of Nurses, allowing for more focused role development appropriate to the country’s healthcare needs (Secretería de Salúd, 2013).

In the meantime, Mexico’s health care system provides significant opportunity and potential for development of the Advanced Practice Nursing role (Pérez-Cuevas, Muñoz Hernández, & Gutiérrez Trujillo, 2010).

Have information to add to this page?

References:
Asociación Mexicana de Enfermeras Especializadas en Medicina Crítica y Terapia Intensiva (n.d.).  AMEEMCTI.  Retrieved from: http://www.ameemcti.org/

Pérez-Cuevas, R., Muñoz Hernández, O., & Gutiérrez Trujillo, G. (2010).  Nurses: The “front gate” to provide effective pediatric preventive care.  Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México, 67(4).  Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462010000400010&lng=pt&nrm=iso

Secretería de Salúd (2013). Congreso Nacional de Enfermería, XX ANEC.  Retrieved from: http://www.salud.gob.mx/unidades/cie/cms_cpe/index.php?Id_URL=400despliegue&anio=2013&Id_Nota=222

[Updated: 2013, October 29]

Advanced Practice Nursing in South Korea

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
Yes

Title:
Advanced Practice Nurse

Nationally Certified/Registered:
Yes

Recognize Foreign Licensure:
Uncertain

Treatment Authority:
Uncertain

Prescribing Authority:
Uncertain

Practice Autonomously:
No

Contact:

Role

Advanced Practice Nurses in South Korea date back to the 1950s (Sheer & Wong, 2008).  There are various roles of APNs in South Korea including (Sheer & Wong, 2008):

  • Nurse Midwife
  • Community Health Nursing
  • Nurse Anesthetist
  • Mental Health Nurse

While the advanced practice nurses have also existed in their country for more than 20 years, a strong value of the physician role has inhibited the professional respect to allow advanced practice nurses their own autonomy and peer collaboration.  Lack of local support in Korea further is represented as there is only one hospital in the nation that hires APNs in the nurse practitioner role, and even then the position reflects more of a senior nursing position than that of a medical provider (Maryland Nurses’ Association, 2012).

Education & Certification

Advanced Practice Nurses in South Korea are educated at the masters level of graduate education (Kang, 2005; Sheer & Wong, 2008).  The Advanced Practice Nurse role in South Korea is governed and certified by the Ministry of Health (Sheer & Wong, 2008).

Specialties

Advanced Practice Nurses in South Korea have various specialties (Kang, 2005; Sheer & Wong, 2008):

  • Anesthesia
  • Community Health
  • Critical Care
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Gerontology
  • Home Care
  • Infectious Disease
  • Industrial Health
  • Palliative/Hospice
  • Psychiatric/Mental Health

Have information to add to this page?

References:
Kang, Y. (2005).  Development of advanced practice nurses in South Korea.  Applied Nursing Research, 18(4), 226-227.

Maryland Nurses’ Association (2012).  A trip by Korean nurse practitioners to observe the U.S. nurse practitioner’s practice.  Maryland Nurse.  Retrieved from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/A+trip+by+Korean+nurse+practitioners+to+observe+U.S.+nurse…-a0293416966

Savrin, C. (2009). Growth and development of the nurse practitioner role around the globe.  Journal of Pediatric Health Care 23, (5),310-314.

Sheer, B. & Wong, F.K.Y. (2008).  The development of advanced nursing practice globally.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(3),204-211.

Advanced Practice Nursing in Namibia

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
Yes

Title:
Midwifery and Neonatology Specialist Midwife (Midwifery and Neonatology)
Critical Care Nursing Specialist Nurse (Critical Care)
Psychiatric Nursing Specialist Nurse (Mental Health)

Nationally Certified/Registered:
Yes

Recognize Foreign Licensure:
Yes

Treatment Authority:
Yes

Prescribing Authority:
Yes

Practice Autonomously:
Uncertain (Yes in rural areas)

Contact:
Nursing Council of Naimibia

Role

The nursing role in Namibia today is expected to train all nurses to also be midwives because of the high need to assist in pregnancies.  As a result, all nurses practice to this level.  Because of the lack of physicians in more rural areas, the nurses in these regions may offer thorough assessment, diagnosis, and treatment based on their being the isolated health provider in a rural area.  Training at the bachelors level has been developed as of 2008 and encouragement from the Namibian government has been to continue to expand the education of nursing (Klopper & Uys, 2010).

As of 2008, the Nursing Council of Namibia also identifies there are several specialties in nursing by which an individual can be trained as a (Health Professions Councils of Namibia, n.d.):

  • Midwifery and Neonatology Specialist Midwife (Midwifery and Neonatology)
  • Critical Care Nursing Specialist Midwife (Critical Care)
  • Psychiatric Nursing Specialist Nurse (Mental Health)

Education & Certficiation

Individuals in the nursing roles can be trained at the bachelor level (Klopper & Uys, 2010).  While all the nurses trained in Namibia have been expected to perform midwifery care, individuals from surrounding countries who come to Namibia to work may not be trained in this task.  As a result, the Namibian schooling offers training to teach those individuals to additionally have the skills to work as a midwife (Klopper & Uys, 2010).

The individuals who pursue the specialties obtain a Masters degree in their specific subject (Health Professions Councils of Namibia, n.d.).

Specialties

The Nursing Council of Namibia does identify several specialties as nurse specialists as mentioned previously as: Midwifery and Neonatology, Critical Care, and Mental Health nurse specialists.  Nurses are also able to obtain a nursing diploma in general nursing as a: midwife, nurse with midwife capabilities, or dermatology (Health Professions Councils of Namibia, n.d.).  According to the Nursing Council of Namibia, there is government sanctioning that identifies additional advanced diplomas that allow a nurse to gain further education in various specialist subjects (Health Professions Councils of Namibia, n.d.):

  • Advanced University Diploma in Operating Room Nursing Science
  • Diploma in Opthalmological Nursing Science
  • Advanced University Diploma in Health Promotion, Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Advanced Diploma in Nursing Education
  • Advanced Diploma in Critical Care Nursing
  • Advanced Diploma in Dermatology
  • Advanced Diploma in Anesthetics
  • Advanced Diploma in Health Service Management
  • Advanced Diploma in Unit Management for Registered Nurses
  • Advanced Diploma in Clinical Nursing Science, Health Assessment, Treatment and Care
  • Advanced Diploma in Community Health Nursing Science
  • Advanced Diploma in Midwifery and Neonatal Nursing Science
  • Advanced Diploma in Occupational Health Nursing Science
  • Advanced Diploma in Gerontological Nursing Science
  • Advanced Diploma in Child Nursing Science
  • Advanced Diploma in Orthopedic Nursing Science
  • Advanced Diploma in Oncology
  • Advanced Diploma in Neonatology
  • Advanced Diploma in Trauma Nursing Science

While this list of advanced diplomas is extensive, it is uncertain the accessibility of these advanced diploma programs, as only the first five were identified to be offered by the University of Namibia (Health Professions Councils of Namibia, n.d.).

Have information to add to this page?

References:
Health Professions Councils of Namibia (n.d.).  Nursing council of Namibia.  Retrieved from: http://www.hpcna.com/nursing_min.php

Klopper, H. & Uys, L.R. (2012). The state of nursing and education in Africa: A country-by-country review [Google eReader version]. Sigma Theta Tau.  Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=SzgiwENnd4UC&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Advanced Practice Nursing in Belgium

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
Yes

Title:
Nurse Practitioner

Nationally Certified:
Yes

Recognize Foreign Licensure:
Uncertain

Treatment Authority:
No

Prescribing Authority:
No

Practice Autonomously:
No

Contact:
Federal Public Service of Belgium

Role

Belgium is divided into two sections, the North (Flemish) and South (French) sections.  Each functions differently.  The Flemish section has implemented an Advanced Nursing Practice role, the French has not (Sheer & Wong, 2008).  A curriculum for preparing Nurse Practitioners was proposed and awaiting approval as of 2008, but as of 2010 no official role had been established (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010; Sheer & Wong, 2008).  While the roles of nursing specialties do not appear to include prescribing and diagnosing, they do allow for consultations and referrals to specialists, and ultimately model more of the Clinical Nurse Specialist role elsewhere (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010; Sheer, 2007).

With the conflicting reports of the current roles, what is certain is that Belgium has had some form of Advanced Practice Nursing roles in two specific titles that have been identified by the Belgian Federal Public Service, namely Intensive and Emergency nurses and Geriatric nurses, and that advanced nursing education is provided in the country (Danish Nurses’ Organization, 2008; Stordeur & Leonard, 2010).  Further, it appears that Advanced Nursing Practice in Belgium is advancing, driven greatly by a health care system with disproportionate general practice and specialist care.  Because of the lack of individuals in certain specialties, there have been more recent pushes encouraging the advancement of nursing practice (Storedur & Leonard, 2010).

Education

Levels of education vary in Belgium.  However, to be a registered Nurse Practitioner of a specialty in Belgium, one needs to have been registered and usually be educated at the bachelors or masters level (Federal Public Service, 2013).

Specialties

For nursing specialists, individuals are able to specialize in intensive care, emergency care, geriatrics, pediatrics and neonatology, mental health and psychiatry, social health care, medical imaging, stomal therapy and wound care, community nursing, oncology, palliative care, anaesthetics, and operations assistant and in instrumentation (operating room) (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007).  The Advanced Practice Nursing roles are more limited in specialty and include the titles of intensive and emergency nursing, geriatric nursing, and transplant nursing (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007; Sheer & Wong, 2008).

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References:
Danish Nurses’ Organization (2008).  Advanced nurse practitioners: Improved health care to chronically ill.  Retrieved from: http://www.dsr.dk/Artikler/Documents/Advanced_Nurse_Practitioners.pdf

Delamaire, M. & Lafortune, G. (2010). Nurses in advanced roles: A description and evaluation of experiences in 12 developed countries.  OECD Health Working Papers, 54, OECD Publishing.http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kmbrcfms5g7-en

Federal Public Service (2013).  Nurse Practitioners.  Retrieved from: http://www.health.belgium.be/eportal/Healthcare/healthcareprofessions/Nursingpractitioners/

Sheer, B. (2007, April 17).  Advanced practice nurses: Networking in the international arena.  Medscape News Today.  Retrieved from: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/554740

Sheer, B. & Wong, F.K.Y. (2008).  The development of advanced nursing practice globally.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(3),204-211.

Stordeur, S. & Leonard, C. (2010).  Challenges in physician supply planning: The case of Belgium.  Human Resources for Health, 8(28),1-11.  doi:10.1186/1478-4491-8-28