Advanced Practice Nursing in Paraguay

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
No

Contact:
Ministry of Health – Paraguay

Role

There is minimal regulation of the role of health care professionals and their scope of practice available online (Hanratty & Meditz, 1988).  Currently nurses are trained up to the bachelor level in the country, but more detailed nursing role and specialization is not available.  However, the Ministry of Health in Paraguay will consider allowed expanded scopes of practice for individuals trained further outside of Paraguay (Republic of Paraguay, n.d.).

Meanwhile, nursing has expanded in Paraguay, with organized nursing dating back to the 1930’s.  Graduate education has also been offered since the 1980’s and has continued to expand promising future possibilities of the advanced nursing practice in the future (Paraguay Times, n.d.).

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References:
Hanratty, D.M. & Meditz, S.W. (1988).  Paraguay: A country study. Washington, D.C.: GPO for the Library of Congress.  Retrieved from:  http://countrystudies.us/paraguay/36.htm

Paraguay Times (n.d.).  Nursing jobs in Paraguay – An increasing demand.  Retrieved from: http://www.paraguaytimes.com/business-finance/business/nursing-jobs-in-paraguay-an-increasing-demand.html

Republic of Paraguay (n.d.). Del ejercicio de la enfermería el congreso de la nación Paraguaya sanciona con fuerza de ley, No 3206.  Retrieved from: http://www.enfermeria.uc.edu.py/node/53

Advanced Practice Nursing in Germany

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
No

Role

Advanced Nursing Practice in Germany does not exist today, nor does it seem to be a nation that will have an established role in the near future.  Much of this is based on the lack of need for advanced practice nurses because of an oversupply of physicians in their nation (Sheer & Wong, 2008).  Additionally, much of current nursing practice in that of Germany is based on hospital-trained diploma programs.  Due to the lack of a nationally standardized nursing role and education system, this becomes a strong limitation on not only the advanced practice nurse, but that of the registered nurse (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007).  However, since 2004 several national universities began providing standardized nursing education at the bachelors level (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007).  There post-registration educational courses available as well allowing nurses to specialize in a specific subject, being offered as 2-year hospital based programs (Robinson & Griffiths, 2007).  Another article by De Geest et al., (2008) verbalized that there is some movement that states physicians and nurses recognize there may be benefit in having more skilled nurses in practice.  Scope of practice is difficult to determine based on the variance of the individual hospital educational systems.

However, a good source of Advanced Practice Nurse networking in Germany can be found here: Deutsches Netzwerk.

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References:
De Geest, S., Moons, P., Callens, B., Gut., C., Lindpainter, L., & Sprig, R. (2008).  Introducting advanced practice nurses/nurse practitioners in health care systems: A framework for reflection and analysis.  Swiss Med Weekly, 138(43-44),621-628.

Robinson, S. & Griffiths, P. (2007).  Nursing education and regulation: International profiles and perspectives [online publication].  Retrieved from: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/348772/1/NurseEduProfiles.pdf

Sheer, B. & Wong, F.K. (2008).  The development of advanced nursing practice globally.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(3),204-211.