Advanced Practice Nursing in Poland

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
Yes

Title:
Nurse Specialist
Nurse Midwife

Nationally Certified:
No

Recognize Foreign Licensure:
RN and Midwife Nursing licensure is recognized from EU

Treatment Authority:
Varies according to specialty

Prescribing Authority:
No

Practice Autonomously:
No

Contact:
Ministerstwo Zdrowia (Poland Ministry of Health)

Role

Development of the Advanced Practice Nurse Role in Poland has been greatly driven by the financial benefit that APNs can provide equal care at a lesser cost than that of physicians (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010).  According to Strózik (2006), Poland has almost 2 nurses per every doctor in the country, and has about 2.3 physicians per 1000 individuals, not significantly lacking.  However, there is also reportedly slower waits to see physicians and consultants (more experienced and knowledgable physicians) and in the emergency rooms than most of the EU (europe-cities.com, 2013).

The expanded roles of nurses in specialty positions perform advanced physiologic and psychologic assessment.  The role of APNs as nurse specialists in Poland are not uniform according to specialty, but are based on the healthcare needs within the country for more urgent care and intensive management.  As a result, such expanses of scope of practice include management of some chronic illnesses (i.e. diabetes and end-stage renal disease), perform triage for patient prioritization, or some emergency procedures (i.e. emergency intubation or tracheotomy) (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010).  APNs in Poland however do not have prescriptive authority (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010).

According to Delamaire & Lafortune (2010), the chief barriers to advancing nursing practice in Poland is four fold:

  • Medical association opposition
  • Lack of government funding for new roles
  • Legislation
  • Methods of compensation for physicians

Education and Certification

Nurses are trained regularly at the bachelor level based on a 3 year post high school education.  They can opt for an extended track that allows for midwifery practice, totaling a 5 years of post graduate coursework (Rechel, Dubois, & McKee, 2006).  Coursework is directed and approved by the Poland Ministry of Health and a post graduation licensure exam is required to practice (Nichols, Davis, & Richardson, 2011; Strózik, 2006).

Specialties

Nurses have opportunities to obtain post bachelor graduate education in midwifery, pediatric, psychiatric, and additional opportunities (Strózik, 2006).  While these specializations offer further education and knowledge application, information is lacking on the extent, if any that the scope of practice may be expanded.

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References:
Delamaire, M. & Lafortune, G. (2010). Nurses in advanced roles: A description and evaluation of experiences in 12 developed countries.  OECD Health Working Papers, 54, OECD Publishing.http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kmbrcfms5g7-en

europe-cities.com (2013).  Healthcare in Poland.  Retrieved from: http://www.europe-cities.com/en/633/poland/health/

Nichols, B.L., Davis, C.R., & Richardson, D.R. (2011).  Appendix J: International models of nursing.  The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health.  Institute of Medicine.  Retrieved from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12956.html

Strózik, M. (2006). Chapter 7: Poland. The Health Care Workforce in Europe: Learning from experience.  World Health Organization: Copenhagen, Denmark.  Retrieved from: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/91475/E89156.pdf

Advanced Practice Nursing in Switzerland

Snapshot

APN Role Exists in Country Today:
Yes

Title:
Advanced Practice Nurse
Nurse Anesthetist

Nationally Certified:
Yes

Recognize Foreign Licensure:
Uncertain

Treatment Authority:
Uncertain

Prescribing Authority:
No

Practice Autonomously:
No

Contact: 
University of Basel

Role

The role of the Advanced Practice Nurse in Switzerland has been developing since 2000 with the first advanced practice nursing program.  While there is no current scope of practice that is identified in the country, Switzerland has been developing the role of APNs that most closely resemble Clinical Nurse Specialists (Sprig, Schwendimann, Spichiger, Cignacco, & De Geest, 2009).  Often individuals who are prepared at the APN level will function not at the clinical level, but rather in leadership, quality, and process improvement levels (Sprig et al., 2009).  Additionally, APNs in Switzerland have been working with more advanced assessment and specialized patient care as well, but is more done so on an organizational-based program (Imhof, Naef, Wallhagen, Schwartz, & Mahrer-Imhof, 2012).  Because the development of APNs in Switzerland has been more driven on creating new healthcare models and improved outcomes rather than a physician shortage, there is little regulation at this time that defines a clear scope of practice (De Geest et al., 2008).

The Nurse Anesthetist role is also in existence in Switzerland (International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists [IFNA], n.d.).  Reportedly there are approximately 1900 Nurse Anesthetists in Switzerland today, more than that of anesthesiologists in the country (INFA, n.d.).  Regulations vary according to region, but in general Nurse Anesthetists administer general anesthesia under the supervision of an anesthesiologist (INFA, n.d.).

Education and Certification

Education for the APN in Switzerland is provided at the masters level after an individual achieves a bachelor degree in nursing (Sprig et al., 2009).  The programs for APNs in Switzerland require an individual to have English proficiency, 2 years of clinical professional experience in nursing, and have a degree in nursing (Sprig et al., 2009).  Additionally, individuals in nursing have also graduated at the doctorate level (PhD) in nursing (Sprig et al., 2009).

Education for a Nurse Anesthetist in Switzerland requires a nurse after obtaining a four-year nursing diploma an additional 400 hours of classroom education and approximately 200 hours of clinical time (INFA, n.d.).

Specialties

While there are various specializations that APNs may function within Switzerland, those observed in the literature were of HIV/AIDS, gerontology, and general practice (primary health care) (Imhof et al., 2012; Sprig et al., 2004).

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References:
De Geest, S., Moons, P., Callens, B., Gut., C., Lindpainter, L., & Sprig, R. (2008).  Introducting advanced practice nurses/nurse practitioners in health care systems: A framework for reflection and analysis.  Swiss Med Weekly, 138(43-44),621-628.

Imhof, L., Naef, R., Wallhagen, M.I., Schartz, J., & Mahrer-Imhof, R. (2012).  Effects of an advanced practice nurse in-home health consultation program for community-dwelling persons aged 80 and older.  Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 60(12),2223-2231.  doi: 10.1111/jgs.12026

International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists [IFNA] (n.d.). Switzerland Country Page.  Retrieved from: http://ifna-int.org/ifna/page?38

Sprig, R., Nicca, D., Voggensperger, J., Unger, M., Werder, V. & Niepmann, S. (2004).  The advanced nursing practice team as a model for HIV/AIDS caregiving in Switzerland.  Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care.  15(3),47-55.  doi:10.1177/1055329003261960

Sprig, R., Schwendimann, R., Spichiger, E., Cignacco, E., & De Geest, S. (2009).  The leadership role of the Institute of nursing Science, University of Basel in launching advanced practice nursing in the German speaking European countrires.  Universitat Basel.  Retrieved from: http://nursing.unibas.ch/fileadmin/pflege/redaktion/Institut/090206_ANP_ICN_Website.pdf